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1 #1 ( ) Yahoo! 4. #2

2 #2 3 USA FCC Milgrom Willson FCC FCC USA NFS Market Design USA CO A. Roth #4

3 #3 #1 #5 # #6

4 #4 # #

5 # Leonid Hurwicz Eric S. Maskin Roger B. Myerson 9 #10

6 #6 1 #11 12

7 #

8 # v y y L L<y v v <y H y>h v L x y> v x y>0 x y>0 0 0 v H x y>0 x y>0 x y<0 0 5 OR #16

9 # v y y L L<y v v <y H y>h v Lx y> v x y>0 x y>0 0 0 v Hx y>0 x y>0 x y<0 0 #18

10 # Vickrey(1961) (90? #20

11 #11 #21 [0,+ ) f(z) F(z) v b z y Π = y > b ( v b) f ( z) dz z y 5 OR #22

12 #12 ( ) v (v) Π = ( v b) f ( y) dy = ( v b) F( β β ( y) > b 1 ( b)) Π b b= β ( v) = 0 # #24

13 #13 [0,a] v kv (0<k<1) k y ky b b P [ ky < b] = P[ y < ] = k b Π = ( v b) ak b ak 1 b * = 1 v k = 2 2 #25 [0,a] (a 2000) 26

14 # i.i.d #27 Yahoo 28

15 #15 Yahoo 29 Yahoo! 30

16 #16 Yahoo! 31 Yahoo!

17 #17 Yahoo! 200 A 1000 A 200 ( 100 A 1000 B 500 A 600 C 2000 C

18 #

19 # Yahoo!

20 #

21 #21 41 #42

22 #22 (private independent value) (interdependent value) (affiliated value) #43 i v i vi = v + ε i ε i 2 N(0, σ ) v 2 v v 1 #44

23 #23 Winner s Curse ( 5 1 v 1 =5 1 5 v 1 =5, v 2 =4, v 3 =3, v 4 =2, v 1 = v + v2 + v3 + v4 + v5 E[ v] = 5 1 = 3 Winner s Curse #45 #46

24 #24, reservation price) posted price, buy price) (last minute bidding) (soft close) (hard #47 48

25 #25 Yahoo #49 Yes! --- No! 50

26 #26 OR 51 END 52

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