A new, low-cost tool backed by the United Nations may help developing-world cities control pollution that kills millions each year. A toxic* haze shro

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2 A new, low-cost tool backed by the United Nations may help developing-world cities control pollution that kills millions each year. A toxic* haze shrouds the Nairobi skyline. Buses spew* out gray clouds of diesel exhaust at every stoplight. The city s notorious traffic jams add a sense of excitement dangerous gases and particles an atmosphere of frustrationto the air. The pollution is a direct threat to Tabitha Wangeci s health. She is dealing with asthma* in one of the city s informal settlements, a polite word for slums. With the many contacts large sums little moneyshe makes selling charcoal, she can t always afford her asthma medication. My chest is always blocked, like my ribs are dried up, she said. I run out of oxygen, then I start breathing heavily. She s far from alone There are few others like her She s unique in her suffering. Many Nairobi residents are exposed on a regular basis to air pollution with potentially serious long-term implications, said Kenyan environment secretary Judi Wakhungu at a recent U.N. Environment Program press conference. For a quarter century, lung specialist Dr. Ndambuki Mboloi has been seeing patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. A World Asthma Day certificate of appreciation hangs on the wall in his cramped office. Mboloi says the toxic haze that shrouds Nairobi raises rates of asthma, heart disease,

3 lung disease and airway infections. Judging by the number of patients that we see who present with respiratory* problems, it may be getting worse it appears we re seeing improvement the situation has apparently stabilized, he said. Outdoor air pollution kills an estimated 3.7 million people per year around the world, according to the World Health Organization. But in Nairobi, as in much of the developing world, there is little information on exactly how bad the problem is which actually lends itself to several solutions creates problems of its own encourages citizens to be better informed. For example, Nairobi s air pollution law focuses a lot on limiting emissions from industries, while the number-one polluters are actually vehicles, waste burning and indoor air pollution, said UNEP atmospheric chemist George Mwaniki. The lack of data is contributing to policies that really do not address the problem, he added. But UNEP hopes to change that, with the help of a new air quality monitor that measures levels of most major pollutants for about one onehundredth of the cost of the standard equipment. The technology we re launching... is a way to measure that very accurately and very cheaply, said UNEP chief scientist Jacqueline McGlade. McGlade said cities can build an effective network of monitors at a price they can afford. Policymakers can identify the sources of pollution and target policies accordingly. Blueprints* for the monitors will be available for free. Environment secretary Wakhungu said it could be manufactured locally, helping Kenya control its population growth monitor traffic patterns develop its technology industry. Information isn t enough, but it s enough to allow people to act, McGlade said. VOA

4 toxic: asthma: spew: respiratory: blueprint: Which of the following is the most suitable title for this passage? Pollution a Major Threat to Developed Cities in Africa Cheap Pollution Monitor Aims to Help World s Cities Respiratory Problems Getting Worse in Nairobi U.N. Scientists Develop Machine to Clean Air According to the passage, what can be said about air pollution in Nairobi? It is caused primarily by industrial emissions. It leads to the deaths of over 3 million people a year. It is expected to be cleaned up within the next 25 years. It contributes to various respiratory ailments. According to the passage, which is true about the new air quality monitors? They will be available for free to developing countries. They will accurately measure air quality inexpensively. They will be produced by U.N. member nations. They will help lawmakers identify new technologies.

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6 In Colombia, small golden airplanes have been discovered and dated as having been made one thousand years ago, long before the airplane was invented. The golden airplanes provide a good example of critical thinking when applied to OOPArts. Scientists say common sense should also be applied to the mistaken or incomplete information that often surrounds OOPArts. As for the footprints, they may be the result of something worse than leaping to conclusions fraud. Thus, it is perhaps not wise to get too excited over OOPArts. These people argue that OOPArts show that science does not have the answers to everything. Furthermore, they claim that by largely ignoring OOPArts and their possible authenticity, science is turning away from a true exploration of the past. OOPArts supporters thus want scientists to look at the past with an open mind. They feel that if science refuses to study OOPArts, the world may miss some

7 key to the true history of our planet. Some supporters may have religious motivation. They hope OOPArts will prove that their religious beliefs are correct. But many other OOPArts enthusiasts have no such reasoning. They only want to find the truth. They may be interesting, but science and reason always have ready answers. OOPArts instead might better be understood as signs of human longing for the mysterious. Much of our existence is unknown, and it is exciting to fill the gaps with fantastic possibilities. OOPArts encourage people to do just that. They may not be authentic, but they are indeed fascinating. While the dates of both human and dinosaur prints seem to be the same, there is good reason to question those of the humans. Many are known to have been altered by someone trying to make them appear more human-like. Other footprints may also be only dinosaur marks that look like human feet due to the effects of time, wind and water: it is difficult to say. Still, with some marks obviously faked, it is hard to believe any of the human footprints are human. OOPArts fans like to focus on the possibilities of super-advanced ancient cultures that might even have created airplanes. Enthusiasts have argued that the small Colombian airplanes were designed well enough to actually fly if they had a power source. Yet, scientists say all of this is just wishful thinking. Other golden ornaments exist from that time and are clearly works of art. Most other ornaments resemble animals or insects. The golden airplanes,

8 when examined with an objective eye, also resemble butterflies. Common sense would seem to say that is what they really are. In 1844, in Scotland, a stonecutter was surprised to find an iron nail within ancient rock. Fossilized human footprints seemingly contemporary with the footprints of dinosaurs were found in Texas. All are examples of out-of-place artifacts* also known as OOPArts objects that do not seem to match historically within the context of where they were found. OOPArts enthusiasts like to cite such discoveries as proof that science does not quite understand the past. Such enthusiasts are sometimes motivated by religious faith, but many are just attracted by the mystery of OOPArts. Scientists, however, say there is no mystery at all. They feel all OOPArts can be explained by careful study and critical thinking. The iron nail is a good example. No photograph of the nail was taken, and descriptions of the find are vague. No one knows where it was found nor the condition of the nail within the rock. All that really remains is the word of the man who reported the discovery. No one can say if his description was accurate or not. There is simply not enough data to suggest that the mysterious nail was actually lodged in a place it did not belong. With no data, it makes no sense to jump to conclusions. artifact:

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10 : ;. Legend has it that the busy president wrote the speech on the very day of the address, during the short train ride from Washington, D.C., to the town of Gettysburg. Lacking paper, he is said to have hurriedly and roughly written down the words on the back of an envelope. A similar legend says Lincoln wrote the speech quickly on a large piece of cardboard and then made adjustments as the train traveled along. Both of these stories have been told and retold so many times that they have become part of American folklore. However, neither story is true. Historians say Lincoln was a careful and slow speechwriter and never would have been so unprepared. Words were important to him, and the powerful tone and rhythm of the Gettysburg Address instead point to lengthy thought and careful consideration, probably days in advance. The speech was only two minutes long, but the words were so moving that they became an almost instant part of American life. Even today, school children memorize the Gettysburg Address and many can recite the entire speech even years later as adults. Unfortunately, they also cling to the legends about how it was created. The notion that the great speech was written quickly on a speeding train may be attractive, but it is mistaken.

11 According to the passage, which of the following is true in regard to how Lincoln wrote the Gettysburg Address? He wrote it while riding on a train to Gettysburg. He wrote it carefully on the day he gave the address. He wrote it sometime before the day of the speech. According to the passage, which of the following is true? Many American people are familiar with the Gettysburg Address. Lincoln was often slow and unprepared when he gave speeches. The most famous American folklore is that of the Gettysburg Address.

12 Japanese law prohibits the holding of an umbrella while riding a bicycle. Do you agree or disagree with this policy? Explain your position.

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C. S2 X D. E.. (1) X S1 10 S2 X+S1 3 X+S S1S2 X+S1+S2 X S1 X+S S X+S2 X A. S1 2 a. b. c. d. e. 2 I. 200 2 II. ( 2001) 30 1992 Do X for S2 because S1(is not desirable) XS S2 A. S1 S2 B. S S2 S2 X 1 C. S2 X D. E.. (1) X 12 15 S1 10 S2 X+S1 3 X+S2 4 13 S1S2 X+S1+S2 X S1 X+S2. 2. 3.. S X+S2 X A. S1 2

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