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20 ABSTRACT The "After War Phenomena" of the Japanese Literature after the War: Has It Really Come to an End? When we consider past theses concerning criticism and arguments about the theme of "Japanese Literature After the War," we realize the necessity to deeply reconsider the meaning of the term "After War" from the point of view of Japanese history, while keeping in mind the whole story surrounding the background and formation of this term. In my own opinion, this term suggests a link with the meaning of what may be called "the War Defeat Syndrome." In the Japanese Academic community there is a common notion that the "After War Phenomena has vanished from the Japanese novel. I doubt that Japan has already overcome what may be called "the War Defeat Syndrome." We may think that when time passes and when a new generation comes, memories of the "Past" fade and die little by little. But I think that as time passes we may find ourselves facing that past in our way at a time and a place when and where we did not expect. This is exactly the case of Japan now, 61 years after the defeat in the war. Shadows of the past are still waving there between Japan and its Asian neighbors like South Korea and China and even North Korea. Shadows of the past are still there in Okinawa, as well. Since the past is still alive we can not declare an end to "Japanese Literature After the War". 122

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