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1 ( )

2 PI

3 i

4 PI URG USB ii

5 2.1 L B RSR 9N RSR 12N RSR 15N M PI ( ) PI PI PI ( PWM ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) URG USB QV-700N ( ) ( ) URG iii

6 iv

7 1 1.1 [1][2][3] [4][5][6]

8 [7]

9 [a] [b] 147cm 137cm 2.1: L B 15mm 20mm 130cm 2.2: 3

10 88cm 2.3: 4

11 3 3.1 M cm 3.3 ( 2.3) 88cm ( 2.2) 130cm ( 2.1) cm 150cm mm 322mm 420mm 5

12 gf 500gf 3.1: gf gf 300gf mm 20mm 5mm 3.7 [8] [9][10][11] 6

13 End-effector Arm 3.1:

14 cm 110cm 40cm [a] 4.1 [b] [c] [d] ( L 1 ) 2 n l l = L 1 +3n (4.1) 8

15 Belt-holder grasping Timing-belt on First stage Belt-holder grasping Timing-belt on Third stage [d] Belt-holder grasping Timing-belt on Third stage [a] [b] motor [c] Belt-holder grasping Timing-belt on Second stage (1) (2) (3) 4.1: kgf : Nm 11.0Nm 5.4Nm 4.2 (THK ) 4.2 9

16 4.2: RSR 15N RSR 12N RSR 9N 63.1Nm 28.9Nm 18.4Nm 350mm 370mm 375mm 417g 270g 147g 4.2: RSR 9N RSR 12N RSR 15N 4.4 ( ) 4 2.0mm ( ) τ 1,τ l ng (n =1, 2) 2 0.5kg τ n (n =1, 2) τ g 10

17 l1g l1 l l2 l2g Robot τ1 τ2 M1 Mj2 M2 4.3: 4.3: mm(l 1 ) 1.5kg(M 1 ) 2-0.3kg(M j2 ) 2+ (0.5kg) 100mm(l 2 ) 0.7kg(M 2 ) τ w τ n = τ ng + τ nw (n =1, 2) (4.2) τ ng (n =1, 2) τ 1g = {M 1 l 1g + M j2 l 1 + M 2 (l 1 + l 2g )} g (4.3) τ 2g = M 2 l 2g g (4.4) τ nw (n =1, 2) τ nw = I n ω n (n =1, 2) (4.5) I n (n =1, 2) I l1 M l1 1 I 1 = x 2 +l 2 M 2 dx + x 2 dx + M j2 l1 2 (4.6) 0 l 1 l 1 l 2 l2 M 2 I 2 = x 2 dx (4.7) l 2 0 τ 1 =21.9Nm, τ 2 =1.96Nm 0.5m/sec kg 0.37Nm 11

18 Maxon 4.4: 1 24V20W Nm 2 24V2.5W Nm 24V20W Nm M M-1 160cm 12

19 4.4: M-1 4.5: 388mm 1218mm 225deg 270deg DC 3 25cm/sec 500g 2.8kg 13

20 4.5:

21 4.6: 15

22 PWM x : x y : y z : z x v : x y v : y L 0 : L h : L 1 : L 2 : θ a : θ b : θ 1 : θ 2 : θ v : 16

23 5.1: Z Y θ 1 L 0 (x v, y v ) L h L 1 θ b θ 2 L 2 (x,y,z) θ a, θ v X 5.2: 17

24 5.3 (x, y, z) (θ a,θ b ) (θ 1,θ 2 ) (L 1 ) (x v,y v,θ v ) x = x v + {L 0 L 1 cos θ 1 + L 2 cos (θ 1 + θ 2 )} cos θ v (5.1) y = y v + {L 0 L 1 cos θ 1 + L 2 cos (θ 1 + θ 2 )} sin θ v (5.2) z = L h + L 1 sin θ 1 + L 2 sin (θ 1 + θ 2 ) (5.3) θ a = θ v (5.4) θ b = θ 1 + θ 2 π (5.5) 5.4 (x, z, θ b ) (θ 1,θ 2 ) (L 1 ) θ 1 = arctan x + L 2 cos θ b + π (5.6) z L 2 sin θ b 2 θ 2 = θ b arctan x + L 2 cos θ b + π (5.7) z L 2 sin θ b 2 L 1 = (x + L 2 cos θ b ) 2 +(z L 2 sin θ b ) 2 (5.8) 5.5 PI PI [12] PI ) ( ) τ ref = K P (θ ref θ + K I θ ref θ dt (5.9) τ ref : [Nm] θ ref : [deg] 18

25 θ : [deg] K P : K I : PWM 0 PWM PWM δ = 1 V 0 ( R τ ref K τ + K e ω ) (5.10) δ : PWM /255 V 0 : [V ] R : [Ω] τ ref : [Nm] K τ : [Nm/A] K e : [V/rpm] ω : [rpm] PWM PI mm 400mm 200mm 0mm

26 200 Reference angle Actual angle 150 angle [deg] time [sec] Reference length Actual length length [mm] time [sec] 200 Reference angle Actual angle 150 angle [deg] time [sec] 5.3: PI ( ) 20

27 5.4 θ 1 l 1 τ ref θ 1 = K Pθ1 ( θ ref 1 θ 1 ) + K Iθ1 ( θ ref 1 θ 1 ) dt + mg l 1 2 cos θ 1 (5.11) τ ref θ 1 : [Nm] θ ref 1 : [deg] θ 1 : [deg] K Pθ1 : K Iθ1 : m : [kg] g : [m/sec 2 ] l 1 : [m] θ 1 τ ref l 1 = K Pl1 ( l ref 1 l 1 ) + K Il1 ( l ref 1 l 1 ) dt + mg sin θ 1 (5.12) τ ref l 1 : [Nm] l ref 1 : [mm] l 1 : [mm] K Pl1 : K Il1 : PI 5.5 PWM 21

28 5.4: PI PI I PI 5.5 PWM (x, z, θ b ) PI (θ b ) (x, z, θ b ) 60mm 22

29 l 1 [mm] time [sec] θ 1 [deg] without gravity compensation with gravity compensation time [sec] PWM duty [y/255] 40 without gravity compensation with gravity compensation time [sec] 5.5: PI PI ( PWM ) 23

30 (x, z, θ b ) (θ 1,θ 2,l) W t [Nm] v t 5.13 W a [Nm] v a 5.14 v t = W tl 3 3EI v a = W al 4 8EI (5.13) (5.14) l : [m] E : [Pa] I : 10mm θ 1 l 1 x y x 10cm f(x, y) =e x2 +y (a,b,c,d) f(θ 1,l 1 )=ae b((θ 1 c) 2 +(l 1 d) 2 ) (5.15) 24

31 a*exp(b*((x-c)*(x-c)+(y-d)*(y-d))) gaps caused by deflection gap [mm] θ 1 [deg] l 1 [mm] : 5.6 a =70, b = , c = 173, d = 800 (x, z, θ b ) (x, z, θ b ) (θ 1,l 1,θ 2 ) 2. θ 1 l 1 ( x, z, θ b ) 3. (x, z, θ b ) ( x, z, θ b ) 4. (x + x, z + z,θ + θ b ) 25

32 (θ 1,l 1,θ 2 ) 5. θ 1 l 1 ( x, z, θ b ) 6. (x + x, z + z,θ + θ b ) ( x, z, θ b ) (x, z, θ b ) 1mm (θ 1,l 1,θ 2 ) 1mm (x + x, z + z,θ + θ b ) 1mm mm PWM 26

33 No Yes 5.7: 27

34 5.8: ( ) ( ) 28

35 ( ) ( ) 0( ) PWM 5.8 PWM PC PI PI 29

36 PWM duty [y/255], Angular Velocity [deg/sec] 60 Load Value Time [sec] PWM duty [y/255], Angular Velocity [deg/sec] 60 Load Value Time [sec] 5.9: ( ) ( ) 30

37 5.10: 31

38 PC PC PC 32

39 : 33

40 15 20cm mm PC PC LxSystem[13] URG 6.3 URG-X002S( URG ) URG 6.1 URG 34

41 6.2: 35

42 6.3: URG [rad] [mm] (x, y) θ URG (x p,y p ) x p = r cos(φ + θ)+x + L cos θ (6.1) y p = r sin(φ + θ)+y + L sin θ (6.2) x p : x y p : y r : φ : x : x y : y θ : L : URG

43 6.1: URG URG-X002S mm, mm 10mm, mm 1% ms/scan 170g 50mm 50mm 70mm URG n (x i,y i ) y = ax + b a,b a = b = n n n n x i y i x i y i i=1 i=1 i=1 ( n n ) n x 2 i 2 (6.3) x i i=1 i=1 n n n x 2 n i y i x i y i x i i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1 ( n n ) n x 2 2 (6.4) i x i i=1 i=1 (x r,y r ) d d = (ax r y r + b) 2 1+a 2 (6.5) URG USB cm 37

44 6.4: USB QV-700N 6.4 Logicool USB QV-700N PC Camera Calibration Toolbox for Matlab[15] USB RGB

45 6.5: ( ) ( ) (u, v) ( u, v) U V 1 θu θv URG L (x obj,y obj,z obj ) x obj = L (6.6) y obj = L tan( θ v v) (6.7) z obj = L tan( θ u u) (6.8) L

46 Y Z Projected Surface Object Projected Surface Object v θv* v Yobj u θu* u Zobj X X Xobj Xobj Top View Side View 6.6: 1. L 3 2. URG 3. URG L URG

47 図 6.7: エレベータによるフロア移動実験の様子 41

48 y [mm] L rd Floor Elevator x [mm] y [mm] L402 4th Floor Elevator x [mm] : URG

49

50 図 6.9: 引き出し操作実験の様子 44

51 7 PI 3mm PC 45

52 46

53 [1] NEC PaPeRo, [2] ApriAlpha, press/ /pr j2001.htm [3] PFU MARON-1, [4], 13. [5] T.Tomizawa, A.Ohya, S.Yuta : Book Browsing System using an Autonomous Mobile Robot Teleoperated via the Internet, Proceedings of IROS 02. [6], 15. [7],,, 03, 2A1-1F-B6 ( ) [8], 9. [9], 11. [10], 12. [11], 14. [12] PID, (1992) [13] 15 47

54 [14] H.Kawata, W.Santosh, T.Mori, A.Ohya, S.Yuta : Development of Ultra-Small Lightweight Optical Range Sensor System, Proceedings of IROS 05. [15] Camera Calibration Toolbox for Matlab : doc/index.html 48

64 3 g=9.85 m/s 2 g=9.791 m/s 2 36, km ( ) 1 () 2 () m/s : : a) b) kg/m kg/m k

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8 300 mm 2.50 m/s L/s ( ) 1.13 kg/m MPa 240 C 5.00mm 120 kpa ( ) kg/s c p = 1.02kJ/kgK, R = 287J/kgK kPa, 17.0 C 118 C 870m 3 R = 287J 26 1 22 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 30.0 cm 1.59 kg 110kPa, 42.1 C, 18.0m/s 107kPa c p =1.02kJ/kgK 278J/kgK 30.0 C, 250kPa (c p = 1.02kJ/kgK, R = 287J/kgK) 18.0 C m/s 16.9 C 320kPa 270 m/s C c p = 1.02kJ/kgK, R = 292J/kgK

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e a b a b b a a a 1 a a 1 = a 1 a = e G G G : x ( x =, 8, 1 ) x 1,, 60 θ, ϕ ψ θ G G H H G x. n n 1 n 1 n σ = (σ 1, σ,..., σ N ) i σ i i n S n n = 1,, 01 10 18 ( ) 1 6 6 1 8 8 1 6 1 0 0 0 0 1 Table 1: 10 0 8 180 1 1 1. ( : 60 60 ) : 1. 1 e a b a b b a a a 1 a a 1 = a 1 a = e G G G : x ( x =, 8, 1 ) x 1,, 60 θ, ϕ ψ θ G G H H G x. n n 1 n 1 n σ = (σ 1,

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