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1 No.6, (2005) A Study of Ivan Illich s Criticism on "Needs" A Consideration on the Advocacy of "Reconstruction of Conviviality" KATAOKA Kimihiro Nihon University, Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies Ivan Illich distinguished "Needs" from "Necessity". And then Illich criticized "Needs" as follows: "Needs" have become the worldwide foundation of common social certainties that relegate inherited cultural and religious assumptions about human limitation to the realm of so-called personal values; as a result, from being part and parcel of the human condition, "Necessity" was turned into an enemy or an evil. That is, it can be inferred that Illich proposed the reconstruction of "Conviviality" by a theory of art, which was based on essentialism, on the assumption that the human phenomenon has be defined by the art of suffering "Necessity". In this present paper, in order to confirm the above-mentioned theoretical inference, it was shown that Illich's criticism on Needs was exactly the ground on which to form a value consciousness of "Conviviality".

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6 143,1990:165,1990:184,1990:178,1990:186 mechanical,1990:191 Necessitas(,1990:183)

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10 1979 ( Tool for Conviviality ) ( ),, (, 1996:140) ( =, 1987:196) (, 1996:132) 1960 =, 1987:198,, ( (OED), 1996:130) (, 1996:133) (, 1996:134),1989: habitus,1990:

11 ,1990: ,1989:19 =,1999:81 = conviviality ) = =,1999 :81,1999:82 =

12 1998, ,, Sachs, Wolfgang (Edt) The DEVELOPMENT DICTIONARY : A Guide to Knowledge as PowerZed Books (Received:May 31,2005) (Issued in internet Edition:July 1,2005) conviviality ) 149

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