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1 Acquiring technique and forming character in physical education after 1936 Analysis of articles of Kenji Shinozaki FUJIKAWA Kazutoshi The United Graduate School of Education Tokyo Gakugei University Abstract According to previous studies, acquiring technique came to be related to forming character after This study considers how Kenji Shinozaki thought about acquiring technique to contribute to forming character to clarify the factor that acquiring technique took root in physical education. The historical materials used in this study are journal articles of Kenji Shinozaki published after The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1 Based on the theory of Sukeichi Shinohara and consideration about development of technique, Shinozaki thought technique as the expression of the spirit and character. And he thought forming character as unify the spirit with body by the acquiring technique. 2 Shinozaki thought that it was necessary to make traditional training of Japan an ideal for forming character by acquiring technique. Concretely, he thought that following two were indispensable. First, it is to rouse longing of students for exercise. Second, it is spiritual movement which consists of willing movement effort for the realization of longingand restrained movement restraint of the harmful desire. 3 In order to rouse longing, Shinozaki thought it was effective in free gymnastics to compare the technique by aiming for the skillful student or observing each other. On the other hand, in gymnastics, he thought it was effective to aim for acquiring technique first, and raising the workmanship next. In addition, he thought it was indispensable to aim for acquiring technique which matches each student s skill. 4 As regards spiritual movement, it was emphasized in gymnastics that the students made an effort for a long term to acquire technique. This is a concrete example of willing movement. However, Shinozaki didn t mention restrained movement. As described above, it is considered acquiring technique to contribute to forming character was incomplete. However, the view that acquiring technique has the usefulness that rouses longing for exercise of students kept existing from the 1920 s. Therefore, it is considered that usefulness to rouse interest and longing for exercise became the factor of acquiring technique in physical education class after 1936.

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