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1 18

2

3

4 GIS ()

5 phf-cl - NO3 - SO4 2- Na + NH4 + K + Mg 2+ Ca ph t/km 2 ~2.5t/km 2 BOD BOD75% BODTP TPTP NO3-N 4

6 WEP Model(Water and Energy transfer Process Model) GIS 3.2, () Conference (Bangkok), X-band radar Conference (Bangkok),

7

8 Leivestad and Muniz(1976) (1993,2006 ) ph Dionex SHIBATA(Model W-101) Dionex MODEL DX-320 F-Cl - NO3 - SO4 2- Na + NH4 + K + Mg 2+ Ca cm No H ph ph ph ph ph ph H 7

9 ph ph 2000 ph eq/l 0.06eq/l K + Mg 2+ Ca 2 ph SO4 2- NO3 - ph 8

10 Ca 2 K + Mg 2+ NH t/km t/km / / /

11 1/10 1/ /

12 5 1 Kriging Method 11

13 t/km 2 2.5t/km 2 0.5t/km 2 Vol (1989) ph Vol (1993) ph Vol (2006) Leivestad,H. and Muniz, I. P. Fish kill at low ph in a Norwegian river, Nature, Vol.295,

14 1. ( 1) ph BOD, L 1:1 in vivo Trilogy (Turner Designs, Sunnyvale CA, USA) GF/F Alef & Nannipieri (1995) (UV-1200, ) 1 ph/ec (D-54,) ()1.0, 0.45, 0.22, 0.1 µm 10 ml Trilogy ph ph 10-7 ( 2) ( 3) 18 % 50 % EC ph ph 3.0 NTU 7.4 NTU 3.3 NTU ( 4)100 % 86% 13

15 in vivo a RFU 5.2 RFU % mg/l 1.43 mg/l 1.16 mg/l ( 6) 5.6 % mg/l mg/l mg/l 1.5 % ( 7) mg/l mg/l mg/l ( 8) 53 % ppm0.069 ppm % (AlPO 4 Al PO 4 pk sp =18.2) (FePO 4 Fe PO 4 pk sp =22) ( 1) 3.2 1: ml 100 ml 5 cm 2 ml Trilogy (Turner design), 3.3 NTU 3.0 ( 4,10) NTU 0.92 NTU 1.2 NTU ( 10) NTU 0.63 NTU 0.57 NTU 14

16 , 0.45, 0.22, 0.1 µm Trilogy 3000 rpm ( 2000 RCF) 3.7 NTU µm 0.32 NTU 9 1 µm ( 11) 0.45 µm NTU 1/ µm 0.22 µm NTU NTU 0.1 µm NTU 0.22 µm 2 1 µm 10% 1 µm 1/2 1 µm 0.45 µm 3000 rpm 10 1 µm Stokes v v = d 2 18 σ ρ η rω 2 d :σ : ρ : η : r : ω : kg m kg m -1 s rpm 15 cm 3 cm 5 µm 5 µm 1 µm in vivo ( 12,) 9 10 MJ/m 2 17 MJ/m 2 25 MJ/m 2 ( 13 ) NTU NTU ( 14) ( 14) 11 15

17 ( 15) µm (JSM6380LANV+HVB51-X0394, ) (C, O, Al, Si) ( 16e) ( 16a) ( 16a)( 16e) ( 16bd) ( 16e) ( 16c) ( 17) 16

18 [H + ] Turbidity (NTU) in vivo Chl. a fluoresence (RFU) EC (ms/m) (EC) in vivo a

19 NO 3 -N (mg/l) NH 3 -N (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Time (days) 10 NO 2 -N (mg/l) PO 4 -P (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Fresh Water <1.0 <0.45 <0.22 < rpm 10' 11 18

20 Water level (m) Date Date Date r 2 =0.72 r 2 =

21 20

22 21

23 22

24 23

25 24

26 25

27 BOD 1)2) ,400km ,1001,500mm 1,200mm 1,500mm 56% 70 16% 14% 7% 6% 1% 15m 3 /s

28 -1 AL 2 W1 W J L -2 BODTNTP TNTP BOD TP TN 2 8 BOD TP -3BOD CD CD 27

29 BOD IK 10.1kg/yrTN GH 9.3kg/yrTP EF 1.2kg/yr 2 BODTNTP TN TP CD BOD TP FG TN GH HI BOD TP TP(mg/l) TN(mg/l) (km 2 ) (km 2 ) (km 2 ) (km 2 ) -2 ( ) -3 ( ) 28

30 (-4-6) -1 AB BC CD DE EF FG GH HI IK BOD TN TP kg/yr/km 2-4 km 2-5 CD FG -4 FG BODTNTP GH BODTNTP GH GH 29

31 -5 EF IK 2 BOD 2 TNTP EF TP -4-6 BC FG FG BC 4 FG BC FG BODTNTP FG /13/63/73/8 3/9 BODTNTPNO3-NNO2-NNH4-NPO4-PDOpHSSChl-a 15 N BOD TN -7TP -7 2) AL-8 NO3-NPN HFH NPHNO3-N 30

32 -7 TN, TP Concentration (mg/l) BOD AB C D E F G H I J K L Catchment area (km 2 ) Flux 10 5 (kg/yr), Flow rate (m 3 /s) BOD Flow rate AB C D E F G H I J K L Catchment area (km 2 ) TN NO3-N NH4-N PN TN NO3-N NH4-N PN Concentration (mg/l) Mass flux 10 5 (kg/yr) AB C D E F G H I J K L Catchment area (km 2 ) 0 AB C D E F G H I J K L Catchment area (km 2 ) Concentration (mg/l) TP PO4-P PP Mass flux 10 5 (kg/yr) TP PO4-P PP 0.00 AB C D E F G H I J K L Catchment area (km 2 ) 0 AB C D E FG H I J K L Catchment area (km 2 ) KL BODTPHI 2 CDBOD 31

33 TNTPHIPP PO4-PChl-a GHNH4-NHJ GHHJNO3-N TPPO4-P IJPP IJSS -9 (5) BOD 2 NO3-N TNNO3-N 8 TN 1 NH4-NBODNH4-NBOD PO4-P TPPO4-P 32

34 BOD (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) NO3-N (mg/l) NH4-N (mg/l) Percentage of built area (%) Percentage of forest area (%) Percentage of cropland cover (%) Particulate N (mg/l) T-P (mg/l) 3.01 (2.7) Percentage of built area (%) Percentage of forest area (%) Percentage of built area (%) -9 BOD 2 4,050km 2 80% m 3 /s/km 2 BK BODTNTP BODTNTP BK B K BK BOD TP FH -11BODTN TP FH -1 33

35 m 3 /s BOD 10 6 kg/yr TN 10 6 kg/yr TP 10 6 kg/yr BK BODTNTP m 3 /s BOD 10 6 kg/yr TN 10 6 kg/yr TP 10 6 kg/yr FH BODTNTP BODTP TNEFTP I JTP NO3-N BODTP 25% 39 34

36 1),,,, Vol.32, , ),,,,, Vol.49, ,

37 mm 325mm 373mm 352mm mm 410mm 36

38

39 GIS UTM ,0004,225,000495,0004,094,000 IX 131,000mIY 89,000m IX 500mIY 500m IX 262IY km m CDROM Arcview 1/10 ( 100m 9 ) GIS 100m 500m 3 1km 500m 38

40 500m 8 39

41

42 WEP WEP MODEL, Water and Energy transfer Process Model WEP 1)2) WEP mm 4,120m 3 /s 6,690m 3 /s

43 WEP 0.65/100m

44 (a) (b)

45 -7(c) (d) (e) (f)

46 m 3 /s ha (a) 45

47 -8(b) 46

48 %

49 GIS ) Jia, Y., G. Ni, Y. Kawahara, T. Suetsugi, Development of WEP model and its application to an urban watershed, Hydrological Processes, Vol.15, No.11, , ) Jia, Y., T.Kinouchi, J. Yoshitani, Distributed hydrologic modeling in a partially urbanized agricultural watershed using water and energy transfer process model, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, ASCE, Vol.10, No.4, ,

50 Global Atmospheric Water Balance and Runoff from Large River Basins (Collaboration): One Chapter in Scale Issue in Hydrological Modeling, (John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 1995) 49

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