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6 Brennan, G. and Lomasky, L., Democracy and Decision : The Pure Theory of Electoral Preference, Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., Miller W. E., and Stokes, D. E., Elections and the Political Order, New York: J. Wiley and Sons, Downs, A., An Economic Theory of Democracy, New York: Harper, Narud, H. M. and Valen, H., "Decline of electoral turnout: The Case of Norway". European Journal of Political Research, vol. 29, 1996, pp Riker, W. and Ordeshook, P., "A Theory of the Calculus of Voting". American Political Science Review, vol. 62, 1968, pp Rosenstone, S. J. and Hansen, J. M., Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America, New York: Macmillan Pub., 1993.

7 269 The Effect of the Electorate's Cognition of Party Differentials on Voting Turnout Hiroshi OKADA In recent years, both national and local elections have often recorded the worst voting turnout in Japan. In news articles, they say the battenness of

8 270 choice in elections, which is caused by the convergence of Japanese political parties, is one reason for this decline in voting turnout. By analysis of survey data in Sendai City in Japan, this paper attempts to examine this argument. In this paper, it is shown that the electorate's cognition of party differentials declined suddenly from 1993 and it had an independent effect on voting turnout, even controlling party identification.

JGSS-2000にみる有権者の政治意識

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