Japanese Journal of Applied Psychology

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1 Japanese Journal of Applied Psychology 2015, Vol. 41, No. 1, PAC * Motivational Factors, Valence, and Time Perspectives in Student Job Hunting: A Personal Attitude Construct Analysis of a Female Student Miharu MATSUURA* The purpose of this study was to explore motivating factors in university students faced with the task of job hunting. An interview survey using Personal Attitude Construct (PAC) analysis was conducted with a female student who had successfully completed the process of job hunting, in order to explore her time perspective and valence. The results revealed two clusters representing opposite directions of valences each other. One representing positive valence and another representing negative valence. However, the student s motivation for job hunting did not correspond completely with these clusters. The student s motivation for job hunting was facilitated and inhibited by both clusters. Her perspective on challenging events in her past high school days had motivated her to overcome the negative valence of the task of job hunting. The findings also suggest that internalized social values and regulations contributed to raising motivation in this case. key words: university students, job hunting, motivation, valence, time perspectives (1996) 2 (1996) (2007) * Faculty of Human Sciences, Sanyo Gakuen University, Hirai, Naka-ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama , Japan

2 66 Vol. 41, No ; (1996) 1996 (1996) (1999) (2004) 1 Lewin (1951) (1995) (1995) Lewin (1999) 1998, 1999, 2007 (2004) (2004)

3 PAC 67 (1995) Lewin Lewin ( ) ( ) (Lewin, 1935) Lewin, 1951 (2012) Lewin Personal Attitude Construct (PAC) 1997 (1993) PAC 2008 (2012) 1 (Trajectory Equifinality Model: TEM) TEM 1 1 PAC 2 1 PAC 2 PAC 1 3

4 68 Vol. 41, No. 1 4 A PAC (1) (2)PAC (1997) 7 Ward 0 (3) 2 (1) 1 PAC PAC Ward,, 0 (2) (3) 1 Kyplot 1 Table Figure 1 ( ) ( ) (0)

5 PAC 69 Table Figure

6 70 Vol. 41, No. 1 1 SPI ( )

7 PAC Table 1 2 Figure 2 ( ) 6 Figure (0) ( ) 6 2 1,, SPI

8 72 Vol. 41, No

9 PAC PAC 1 2 Lewin, (2012) (Apter, 1982) (paratelic) (flow) (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002) (Deci & Ryan, 1985) (Deci & Ryan, 1985) 2

10 74 Vol. 41, No. 1 (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Ryan & Deci, 2000 Deci & Ryan, 1985 (Integration) Ryan & Deci, 2000 (1995) 1996 (Lewin, 1951) Ryan & Deci, (Elliot, McGregor, & Thrash, 2002) PAC 2 PAC

11 PAC PAC PAC PAC (2004) PAC 2 PAC , Apter, M. J The Experience of Motivation: the Theory of Psychological Reversals. London: Academic Press TEM 25, Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Humanbehavior. New York: Plenum. Elliot, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Thrash, T. M The need for competence. In Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, pp III 2 46, , K., 1957 (Lewin, K A Dynamic Theory of Personality. Translated by Adams, D. K., & Zener, K. E. New York: McGraw-Hill) K., 1979 (Lewin, K., Cartwright, D. (Ed.) 1951 Field Theory in Social Science. Harper & Brothers.) , PAC

12 76 Vol. 41, No PAC PAC 1 pp Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M The concept of flow. In Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (Eds.) Handbook of Positive Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press (1) 1, , Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, II pp , , , , , Taylor & Betz (1983) 16, , , ;

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