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19 SATO Kentaro Milk and its by-products are naturally nutritious food, and people in ancient Japan enjoyed tasting them as foods, drinks, or medicines. On the other hand, milk and its by-products were closely related to the philosophy of Buddhism and were often supplied at Buddhist rituals. There have been many studies on ancient diets including milk and its by-products and we have obtained useful knowledge on nutritious foods in ancient Japan. Among the milk products, So ( ), a type of dairy product made from layers of milk skin, has been re-produced, and Japanese people enjoy it as it was enjoyed in the ancient diet. Based on previous studies, in this article the author describes the use of milk and its by-products as well as the contribution system of offerings in ancient Japan. The newly found research materials including Kouninshiki s lost writings formula( ) that describe So ( ), wooden plates ( ), and clay pots( ) are used for discussion. Since materials useful for studying the contribution system of offerings ( ) in the Heian Era are unavailable except for (a Japanese book of laws and regulations), the contribution system of offerings ( ) earlier than Engishiki ( ) is not known. Thanks to Kouninshiki s lost writings formula, the contribution system of offerings under regulation called Kouninsikisei ( ) has been clarified. By comparing the contribution system of offerings called Engishiki with that of Kouninshiki, every aspect of change, i.e., difference in systems and any historical factors for transformation, have been reviewed. It is not clear when the contribution system of offerings was changed from Kouninshiki to Engishiki, but it is certain that the contribution system of offerings ( ) apparently existed until 887 (the 3 rd year of Ninna) according to Kouninshiki.

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