2 except for a female subordinate in work. Using personal name with SAN/KUN will make the distance with speech partner closer than using titles. Last

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1 1 北陸大学 紀要 第33号 2009 pp 原著論文 バーチャル世界における呼びかけ語の コミュニケーション機能 ポライトネス理論の観点からの考察 劉 艶 The Communication Function of Vocative Terms in Virtual Communication: from the Viewpoint of Politeness Theory Yan Liu Received November 2, 2009 Abstract In this paper, Vocative Terms in Modern Japanese are classified into 1.Personal Pronouns, 2.Kinship Terms,3.Titles, 4.Personal Names with SAN/KUN, 5.Personal Names without SAN/KUN, 6.Depreciative or Hypocoristic Terms, 7.Nickname, 8.Special Designation. Moreover, targeting at 1~5, this paper analyzes the communication function of Vocative Terms in virtual communication from the viewpoint of politeness theory which focus on Distance of personto-person relationships. The results can be summarized as follows. Personal Pronouns are not much used in the communication because of having strong deictic. We are expected to avoid speaking in direct language as one of the actions to maintain social relationships. In particular, ANATA (you) which is used as address term, is an overstatement to say that is a special address term, because which is only used to call her husband by a wife. Kinship Terms have In-family usage and out-family. But all of kinship terms are limited to an appeal from subordinate to a superior because of their compellation. Another feature is that the use of kinship term is based on the perspective of the youngest family member. The out-family usage is a positive-politeness strategy. The use of titles is a negative-politeness strategy which can avoid using address terms. Its range is thought to be used for most workrelated. The usage of Personal Names with SAN/KUN can be divided into Last Name + SAN/KUN and First Name + SAN/KUN. -KUN is usually used to call younger men, 国際交流センター International Exchange Center 173

2 2 except for a female subordinate in work. Using personal name with SAN/KUN will make the distance with speech partner closer than using titles. Last Name +KUN is closer than Last Name +SAN. And First Name +SAN is closer than Last Name +SAN. Using First Name without SAN/KUN is different from Last Name in Japanese. First Name can be used to call a very close friend who is as GIKYODAI (adopted brother), but can t be used to call a superior. Last Name can be used in work to scold or give orders to subordinate. 174

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