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1 雯 A Study of Japanese Time Adverbs Focusing on Adverbs that Express Immediacy Wen - Shun CAIANG Tamkang University of Taiwan This study focuses on adverbs that express immediacy : sugu, sikyuu, tadachini, and tachimachi. These adverbs are examined according to their sentence - final predicate forms, volitive modality, point of view, whether or not the situation they refer to has already been realized, and whether or not they can be used in a negative sentence. We conclude that sentences which use these four adverbs are all time - restricted, the sentence - final predicate must contain motion and telicity, and most of these adverbs are used to express the beginning of an action or transformation. Similarities and differences are : sugu, and tachimachi may be used to convey the nature or qualities of people or animals, which are not limited by time ; sugu, sikyuu, and tadachini, mostly appear in the volitive mood, whereas tachimachi is largely non - volitive ; sikyuu is typically used to request the listener to immediately begin an action, while tachimachi is primarily used to describe what is currently happening from a bystander s point of view ; tachimachi can only be used to describe realized situations whereas the others may be used to modify realized or non - realized situations ; and sikyuu and tachimachi may not be used in a negative sentence. We conclude that sugu is the most frequent adverb and tachimachi is the least common adverb. 71

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