01_梅村佳代_紀要_2007最終

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1 Bull. Nara Univ. Educ., Vol., No. (Cult. & Soc.), An Historical Study of Education in the Tajima Province, from the Late Early-Modern Times until the Early Meiji Era UMEMURA Kayo (Department of School Education, Nara University of Education, Nara -, Japan) Received May, Abstract In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the process of developments in learning and education in the Izushi han in the Tajima province, during the phase from the formation of the early-modern era until the modernschool systemperiod. More than Confucianism, learning by the feudal lord families during the formation of the early-modern period was done with a great interest in the reading of Japanese books, especially war chronicles and historical documents. Lectures on Confucianism were regarded as being ritualistic. However, rather than merely the pursuit of learning, Sengoku, the feudal lord of the Izushi han, awakened to Confucianism earlier than other feudal lords, and during the middle early-modern period, he established a han school for the learning of his samurai families. Furthermore, amid the progress made in samurai education, as well as the han school, Sengoku also established schools for girls, and urban and rural schools. This kind of promotion and encouragement for education and culture by the feudal lord intensified the learning fervor of scholars, including Confucian scholars retained by the lord. Then, so as to be stimulated by the broadening academic network of these intellectuals, divisions of people with a passion for learning and education began to emerge from the samurai, farmer and merchant classes. This is evidenced in the late early-modern times by the massive libraries created and held by the wealthy merchant-farmer class, and by the opening of writing schools and private schools which had broadly permeated into the lives of the masses. A new and extensive literate stratum of society began to form in the community. Based on this fervor for learning and education, the establishment of elementary schools during theschool systemperiod following the Meiji Restoration was actively addressed with the concerted effort of the community. Our study uses the example of the Ifu School located in the Ifu village of Keta-gun, Hyogo Prefecture, to examine how school funds and entering school were actually realized in the school districts and villages. In establishing elementary schools during the early years of the Meiji era, full use was made of the many methods for developing schools that had been experienced in the community during the transitional phase, and these were adapted to suit the changing lifestyle. It was this that made

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