2.1 *2 DNA Individual-Based Simulation Dyke (1980) honorable use *2 eg. 2

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1 (anthropology) 2 (cultural anthropology) (ethnology) (physical anthropology) 1.2 (ecology) ecology (Ernest Haeckel, 1869) oikos + logos *1 (Krebs, 1972) Begon/Harper/Townsend Ecology: Individuals, Populations, and Communities. (2nd ed.) (1990) 3 (human ecology) (1980) 1.3 (2005) 2 *1 oikos + nomics 1

2 2.1 *2 DNA Individual-Based Simulation Dyke (1980) honorable use *2 eg. 2

3 3 3.1 N N B D I E N = N + B D + I E (Capture-Mark- Recapture Method) 1 semelparous iteroparous (migration) term (dispersal) term 3

4 3.2 (carrying capacity) K N r dn/dt = rn S dn/dt = rn(k N)/K r α α, r, K dn1 dt = r 1 N 1 (1 N 1 K 1 α 12N 2 K 1 ) dn 2 dt = r 2 N 2 (1 N 2 K 2 α 21N 1 K 2 ) Optimal Foraging Theory monophagous oligophagous polyphagous (Rostrahamus sociabilis) White pine Red pine Jack pine, White spruce Jack pine (Horton, 1964) Tinbergen, 1960 (monophagous) (oligophagous) fit (polyphagous) 4

5 (OFT) Lotka Volterra (Lotka-Volterra Model) N r a C f q dn dt = rn a CN dc dt = fa CN qc detritivore *3 (bacteria) (fungi) sugar fungus 2,3,7,8- PCB Zooprophylaxis 1 N 1 2 N 2 α > 0 *3 5

6 dn 1 = r 1N 1 (K 1 N 1 + α 12 N 2 ) dt K 1 dn 2 dt = r 2N 2 (K 2 N 2 + α 21 N 1 ) K 2 α B Forrester H.T. Odum E: P: F: I: 2 Mumford, 1961; Cronon, 1991; Gandy, 2002; Colten, 2005 Robbins, 2001; Keil, 2003; Desfor and Keil, 2004 Platt, 1994; Pickett, 1997; Fernandez-Juricic, 2000; Fernandez-Juricic and Jokimani, 2001; Grimm and Redman, 2004 Pickett (2004) (cities of resilience), km 2 6

7 km km km ha km ha km 2 23 (carrying capacity) a) b) Robins, (dietetics) 18 Nutrition Kreuter, P.A. (1980) Nutrition in Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenrice-Hall. nutrition Oxford English Dictionary nutrition (1a) (nourishing substances) (1b) (nourishment) (2) (1) nutrition Nutritional Science 7

8 , (essential trace element) (1981) stunted wasted intake expenditure 100 BMI body mass index BMI kg m Garrow Grade I Grade II 40 Grade III 170 cm Grade III 116 kg 1998 (NIH) BMI Class I Class II 40 Class III 1997 WHO % I II Component causes Component causes BMI BMI BIA DLW MRI 8

9 16 kg (skinfold caliper) Durnin and Womersley (1974) (mm) (g/cm2) (f) (D) Brozek (1965) f=(4.570/d-4.142)*100 Siri (1956) f=(4.950/d-4.5)*100 BIA (BioImpedance Analysis) RJL systems American Journal of Clinical Nutrition DLW (Doubly Labeled Water Method) 18 UWW (Under Water Weighing) 1990 Am. J. Clin. Nutr. FFQ(Food Frequency Questionnaire) usual diet Br. J. Nutr. 9

10 24 GPS ,000 km , FAO/WHO 1 kg g Na Ca P Cu Zn K Mg Mn Fe Fe Mn BMI 100 mg 50 mg WHO WHO (Necator americanus) (, 1991) (LDH) LDH 10

11 LDH LDH LDH (Nakazawa et al., 1996) 4.2 (2011) 5 3 (2003) (2003) (2005) (2004) (2000) [ ] (1994) (1982) (1980) UP 213 * 4 (1994) (1996) (1975 ) (1994 * 5 Nakazawa M, et al. (1996) Iron nutrition and anaemia in malaria endemic environment: Haematological investigation of the Gidra-speaking population in lowland Papua New Guinea. British Journal of Nutrition, 76: ,400 ISBN * 6 409pp. *4 30 *5 *6 11

12 (1990) 3,200 (2002) 2,000 * 7 ELLEN, Roy (1982) Environment, Subsistence and System: The Ecology of Small-Scale Social Formations. Cambridge University Press. * 8 MORAN, Emilio F. (1982) Human Adaptability: An Introduction to Ecological Anthropology. Westview Press. * 9 MORAN, Emilio F. (2006) People and Nature: An Introduction to Human Ecological Relations. Publishing. * 10 Blackwell G.W. Lasker and C.G.N. Mascie-Taylor [Eds.] (1993) Research Strategies in Human Biology. Cambridge Univ. Press. * 11 Jelliffe, Derrick B., and E. F. Patrice Jelliffe (1989) Community Nutritional Assessment: with special reference to less technically developed countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford. * 12 [ ] (1984) 2,800 * 13 (1991) [1044] 640 * 14 time allocation *7 *8 *9 *10 QOL *11 *12 reference *13 input-output *14 12

2.2 Gompertz-Makeham Gompertz Makeham Gompertz Gavrilov and Gavrilova Gavrilov and Gavrilova (1991) Mori and Nakazawa (2003) S 2.3 40 80 DNA mev-1 II

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