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1 ミルスペース [What s New in Virtual Library?] McGrawHill AW&ST &21AWST_Contents.pdf, Cover.jpg Boeing Frontiers 1006BF_Frontiers_singles.pdf, Cover.jpg 1005BF_Frontiers_singles.pdf, Cover.jpg 1004BF_Frontiers_singles.pdf, Cover.jpg RAND Space-Weapons_Earth-Wars 0203RAND_MR1209_Space-Weapons_Earth-Wars.pdf 0203RAND_MR1209_Space-Weapons_Earth-Wars_summary.pdf Space_Weapons_Earth_Wars-J_Cover.jpg SJAC SJAC1003_Next_Gen_Space_Project_Contents.pdf, Cover.jpg SJAC1003_Space_Robot_Contents.pdf, Cover.jpg 1003SJAC_Sekai-No-Uchu-Infra-Sat_Contents.pdf, Cover.jpg 1003SJAC_Sekai-No-Uchu-Infra-Rocket_Contents.pdf, Cover.jpg 1003SJAC_Sekai-No-Uchu-Infra-SpaceScience_Spaceship_Cont ents.pdf, Cover.jpg Space_Weapons_Earth_Wars-E_MR1209_Cover.jpg [ 謝 辞 ] NICT より NICT news 号 寄 贈 感 謝 2010 年 6 月 25 日 人 民 網 日 本 語 版 イスラエル 偵 察 衛 星 を 打 上 げ イスラエル 国 防 省 は 23 日 同 国 の 中 心 都 市 テルアビブにある 空 軍 基 地 から 現 地 時 間 22 日 夜 偵 察 衛 星 オフェク 9(Ofeq 9) の 打 上 げに 成 功 したと 発 表 これでイスラエルの 偵 察 衛 星 は 既 に 6 機 が 軌 道 を 周 回 している イスラエルは 今 回 の 打 上 げにシャビット(Shavit) 運 搬 ロケット は 他 の 衛 星 と 共 同 作 業 を 行 うことによって 敏 感 な 地 域 に 対 するカバー 範 囲 を 大 幅 に 広 げることができる オフェク 9 搭 載 カメラの 識 別 能 力 は 50cm をはるかに 上 回 っており 地 上 ミサイルや 打 上 げ 装 置 を 鮮 明 に とらえることができる ( 編 集 YT) を 使 用 国 防 省 高 官 によると 高 解 像 度 カメラを 搭 載 している 同 衛 星 Wed, Jun 23, 2010, 6:28 AM ET(1028 GMT) spacetoday.net イスラエルは 偵 察 衛 星 を 打 上 げ Israel launches reconnaissance satellite An Israeli rocket launched a new reconnaissance satellite that may be devoted to keeping an eye on Iran. The Shavit rocket lifted off from the Palmachim air base on the Mediterranean coast of Israel at about 3 pm EDT (1900 GMT) Tuesday and placed the Ofek 9 satellite into low Earth orbit. The satellite is the latest in a series of small imaging satellites operated by the Israeli military and is a slight improvement over the existing Ofek 7 satellite. Officials said that the new satellite will provide greater flexibility in Earth observations, particularly of Iran /22/10 04:31 PM ET spacenews Barbara Opall-Rome イスラエルは 最 新 のスパイ 衛 星 を 打 上 げ Israel Launches Newest Spy Satellite Israel successfully delivered its latest spy satellite into low Earth launcher, defense sources here said....( 後 略 ) orbit June 22 using an improved version of its indigenous Shavit 関 連 ニュース Israel launches new spy satellite 1

2 Israel's "Ofeq 9" satellite was launched and successfully injected into orbit Israel launches Ofek 9 spy satellite Israel lofts new satellite to spy on Iran New Israeli spy satellite blasts off into the night Israel launches spy satellite Israel Launches New Spy Satellite; Iran Under the Microscope Israel launches spy satellite: defence ministry Tue, Jun 22, 2010, 6:14 AM ET (1014 GMT) Dnepr はドイツの 衛 星 をレーダ 打 上 げ spacetoday Dnepr launches German radar satellite For the second time in less than a week a Dnepr rocket placed a European satellite into orbit on Monday. The Dnepr rocket, a converted SS-18 ICBM, lifted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and placed the 1.3-tonne TanDEM-X satellite into a 514-kilometer Sun-synchronous orbit. The spacecraft, operated by a public-private partnership between the German space agency DLR and Astrium, is a twin of TerraSAR-X, a radar imaging satellite launched in The two satellites will operate in parallel to generate a 3-D elevation model of the Earth. Last week another Dnepr rocket launched the Prisma and Picard satellites for Sweden and France from an ICBM base at Yasny, Russia June 2010 German Aerospace Center (DLR) 地 球 を 3 次 元 で --- ドイツのレーダ 衛 星 TanDEM-X の 打 上 げ 成 功 The Earth in 3D - German radar satellite TanDEM-X launched successfully DLR responsible for mission operations and generation and was received via Troll ground station in the Antarctic. utilisation of scientific data Launch of Germany's Earth observation satellite TanDEM-X The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) manages TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on Flying in formation, TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X Germany's second Earth observation satellite, TanDEM-X, was launched successfully on 21 June 2010 at 04:14 Central European Summer Time (CEST, at 08:14 local time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Atop a Russian Dnepr rocket, the satellite, weighing more than 1.3 tons and five metres in length, started its journey into orbit. At 4.45 CEST first signal for Digital Elevation Measurement) via its ground segment, and is responsible for mission operations and for generating and utilising the scientific data. "TanDEM-X is a key German project and will provide us with a homogeneous 3D elevation model of the Earth which will be an indispensable aid for a great many scientific and commercial avenues of enquiry," said DLR Chairman Prof. Dr Johann-Dietrich Wörner at the launch event held in the German 2

3 Space Operations Center (GSOC) at the DLR site in Oberpfaffenhofen. "This mission demonstrates Germany's expertise in satellite-based radar technology and is, in particular, the outcome of a consistent focus in the national space programme. Also, TanDEM-X demonstrates a successful public-private partnership," stressed Prof. Wörner. Public-private partnership TanDEM-X is being run as a public-private partnership (PPP) between the DLR Astrium GmbH, with DLR funding coming from the German Ministry of Economics and Technology. Infoterra GmbH, a subsidiary of Astrium, is responsible for the commercial marketing of the TanDEM-X data. Astrium GmbH in Friedrichshafen built the satellite and is sharing the costs for its development and operation. The TanDEM-X mission has a total cost of 165 million Euros. DLR is contributing 125 million Euros and the European space company Astrium is contributing 40 million Euros. TanDEM-X and its twin satellite, TerraSAR-X, will fly in formation transmits microwave pulses that are reflected by the surface of the Earth and received back by the radar. The distance between the satellite and the Earth's surface is calculated from the time it takes the signals to return. Since the satellite is moving around the Earth, the radar 'illuminates' a strip along the ground, which gives the radar its synthetic aperture, much larger than its real one. With SAR interferometry, a geographical area is imaged from two different viewing positions, giving different perspectives. This is similar to the way humans use their two eyes to get an accurate, 3D image. The two 'radar eyes' are on the satellite duo TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X, and produce an interferogram from the different distances the signals have to cover; elevation data is derived from this Within three years, this will create a gigantic data record equivalent to the storage capacity of DVDs. TanDEM-X is designed for a service life of at least five years and is scheduled to overlap the scheduled service life of TerraSAR-X for at least three of those years. Satellite-based Earth measurement creates a globally homogeneous terrain model without interruptions at national borders or other inconsistencies (compared with aircraft-based measurements). Radar can see through bad weather and operates regardless of lighting conditions. Today, this process is without competitors and enjoys considerable respect, especially in the USA. Tremendous variety of applications TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X flying in close formation Together with its twin satellite TerraSAR-X, in space since 2007, TanDEM-X will survey the entire land surface area of the Earth - a total of 150 million square kilometres - several times over. It will accomplish this from an altitude of 514 kilometres within three years. "This will be the first time we will ever have had a globally standardised 3D digital elevation model of Earth, and with a measuring point density of 12 metres, it will be incredibly accurate," said Prof. Dr Alberto Moreira, Science Director of the TanDEM-X mission and Director of the DLR Microwaves and Radar Institute. Today, for large areas of Earth, there are only approximate, non-standardised or incomplete elevation models, and it is these gaps that the TanDEM-X mission is designed to fill. To accomplish this, TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X will fly just a few hundred metres apart and will constitute the first configurable synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometer in space. With a conventional SAR, the radar on the satellite TanDEM-X elevation model Digital elevation models can be used in a huge range of applications. Geoscientific disciplines such as hydrology, geology and oceanography require precise and up-to-date information on the properties of the Earth's surface. Digital elevation models can help to make the exploitation of natural resources more efficient and can also help to optimise relief planning in the wake of natural disasters, as well as security deployments. Digital maps are also essential to reliable navigation: their precision needs to keep pace with the increasingly stringent requirements that govern global positioning. Germany will be the first country 3

4 in the world to have a digital elevation model of Earth, making it a globally unique data product. This can be used in initiatives and programmes such as the ZKI (Center for Satellite-Assisted Crisis Information at DLR), GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems), and may also be incorporated in security-related cooperation treaties and agreements. Commercial customers around the world are looking forward eagerly to this TanDEM-X/ TerraSAR-X elevation model. As soon as it becomes available in 2013, remote observation and geoinformation experts from the private business sector, public sector authorities, defence and security facilities will benefit. Data processing at the DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen enhancement by Infoterra and waiting for the immense volume of raw data that the satellites will generate. This data will be processed in three main steps: initially, the data transmitted by TanDEM-X to these ground stations will be examined. Then the results will be evaluated at the DLR s German Remote Exploration Data Center (DFD) in Oberpfaffenhofen and processed into raw versions of elevation models. The global digital elevation model is then generated by a unit known as the mosaicking and calibration processor. The data records for the global elevation model will amount to 15 terabytes and will be available about four years after the launch of TanDEM-X. Adaptation of the elevation model to the needs of commercial users and its worldwide marketing will be handled exclusively by Infoterra GmbH. As part of the data enhancement process, Infoterra will further process the raw data supplied by the satellite system to meet the requirements of its various customers. It is standard practice to edit out anomalies known as 'spikes' (abnormal peak readings caused by interference), offsets (which radar shadows can produce, especially in mountainous terrain) and areas of surface water (assurance of standard water levels and the correct angle of downhill gradient for rivers).( 中 略 ) Network of ground stations A network of three TanDEM-X grounds stations (Kiruna in Copyright 2010 German Aerospace Center (DLR). All rights reserved. Sweden, Inuvik in Canada and O'Higgins in the Antarctic) is ready Mon, 21 June, By Peter B. de Selding Dneper ロケットはドイツのレーダ 衛 星 を 打 上 げ Dnepr Rocket Launches German Radar Satellite webcast the launch from the Russian-run Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, said the satellite had sent its first signals and was healthy in orbit. The 1,340-kilogram TanDem-X, like the TerraSAR-X spacecraft launched in June 2007, is the result of a partnership between DLR and Astrium of Germany, whose Infoterra division has rights to sell the satellites imagery products. TanDem-X is about a year late in being launched following delays related to the satellite s construction and to the availability of the Dnepr rocket. But DLR officials said TerraSAR-X, whose contracted service life was five years in PARIS Germany s TanDem-X radar Earth observation satellite was successfully launched June 21 aboard a Russian-Ukrainian Dnepr rocket and is expected to enter service in early 2011 alongside the TerraSAR-X satellite already in orbit to provide 3-D digital terrain models of the Earth s entire landmass. Officials from the German Aerospace Center, DLR, which orbit, is healthy enough to operate until 2014, providing three years of tandem operations with TanDem-X. DLR officials expect to spend about six months calibrating TanDem-X. After that, it will join TerraSAR-X in a three-year mission to map the Earth s entire landmass with a ground resolution of 12 meters and a vertical precision of 2 meters or better. The resulting product 4

5 some 15 terabytes of data covering 150 million square kilometers of territory will provide what DLR bills as the first global digital elevation model. The two X-band radar satellites are the latest manifestations of Germany s long interest in radar Earth observation. A German radar was placed aboard the U.S. space shuttle in 2000 as part of the Shuttle Radar Topography mission that mapped much of the Earth s area between 60 degrees north and 60 degrees south latitude. Two data sets were produced one at 90-meter spatial resolution, one at 30 meters with a vertical precision of between 5 meters and 10 meters. TerraSAR-X was built for 185 million euros, or $226 million at current exchange rates, with DLR paying 80 percent of the costs and Astrium financing the remaining 20 percent. TanDem-X, which uses much of the same hardware as TerraSAR-X but is not an exact duplicate, was built for 165 million euros, with DLR paying 75 percent and Astrium the rest. The figures include the launch and operations. TanDem-X will operate in the same 514-kilometer polar low Earth orbit as TerraSAR-X, with the two satellites separated by a distance of between 200 meters and several kilometers. The global digital elevation model data is expected to take about three years to collect and another year to render into usable form, according to DLR. DLR will use the data for scientific and other research purposes, while making the global set available to Friedrichshafen, Germany-based Infoterra. Infoterra spokeswoman Mareike Doepke said June 21 that digital terrain model, Infoterra will not have more conventional radar imagery available to it. Doepke said Infoterra, which is part of the Astrium Services company that includes Spot Image of France, which specializes in optical satellite imagery, anticipates a commercial market for the 3-D models once they become available in about four years. The commercial potential of the TanDem-X data set is very promising, even if current forecasts project that only one-third of the data set, or about 50 million square kilometers, is of a true commercial interest, Doepke said in an ed response to questions. Infoterra does not expect revenues from elevation models in remote, scarcely populated areas, or areas for which up-to-date elevation models are already available from airborne campaigns. Nevertheless, from the availability of the elevation model in , we expect a promising revenue growth potential in the following years. Infoterra has not determined how the elevation model data will be priced, choosing to wait to determine the level of quality the market demands. TanDem-X s X-band synthetic aperture radar has three imaging modes. The ScanSAR mode has a 100-kilometer swath width and a 16-meter ground resolution. In StripMap mode, the satellite takes images with a 3-meter ground resolution and a 30-kilometer swath width. The highest-resolution mode, SpotLight, has a 10-kilometer swath width and is capable of distinguishing objects or features as small as 1 meter in diameter. because both satellites will be involved in creating the global June 21, BY STEPHEN CLARK ドイツの 衛 星 が 地 球 をレーダで 観 測 するために 配 備 された German satellite deployed to map the Earth with radar A new German satellite rocketed into orbit from Kazakhstan early Monday, reinforcing a program to create the most precise civilian three-dimensional maps of Earth using dual high-resolution radars. "TanDEM-X is a key German project and will provide us with a homogeneous 3D elevation model of the Earth, which will be an indispensable aid for a great many scientific and commercial avenues of inquiry," said Johann-Dietrich Worner, chairman of the German Aerospace Center, or DLR. The nearly 3,000-pound satellite, neatly packaged inside the nose of a Dnepr rocket, shot out of an underground silo and roared into space at 0214 GMT Monday (10:14 p.m. EDT Sunday) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Powered by surplus Russian military hardware, the Dnepr rocket deposited TanDEM-X in a sun-synchronous polar The new spacecraft, named TanDEM-X, will fly in formation with a similar satellite launched in 2007 to illuminate Earth with two radars from slightly different vantage points in space. orbit a few minutes later. German ground controllers heard the first radio signals from the satellite at 0245 GMT (10:45 p.m. EDT) through a communications station in Antarctica. 5

6 TanDEM-X stands for TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement, according to DLR. TerraSAR-X has been collecting its own topographic images of Earth for nearly three years. The satellites will be separated by several hundred meters during normal operations, occasionally approaching within 200 meters, or 656 feet, of each other. Before controllers order TanDEM-X to enter formation with TerraSAR-X, they will check to ensure the newly-launched satellite is healthy. TanDEM-X uses autonomous formation flying software and GPS navigation Minor variations in that time tell the radar system information about the elevation and terrain on the surface. The mission's data will produce gridded maps with a spatial resolution of 12 meters, or 39 feet. The maps will show elevation with an accuracy of less than 2 meters, or 6 feet. "This will be the first time we will ever have had a globally standardized 3D digital elevation model of Earth, and with a measuring point density of 12 meters, it will be incredibly accurate," said Alberto Moreira, science director of the TanDEM-X mission. readings to keep the satellites in lockstep and ensure they do not collide in orbit 319 miles above Earth. The 12-meter resolution from the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X radars eclipses earlier civil radar systems. Credit: DLR The tandem mission will survey all of Earth's land surface several times, gathering information to create topographic maps and digital elevation models for scientists and businesses. Artist's concept of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X mapping Earth. Credit: DLR Engineers also added a cold gas thruster system to TanDEM-X for smaller maneuvers to keep the satellite positioned in the correct location. TanDEM-X is designed to work for at least five years, including a three-year overlap with TerraSAR-X. Both satellites carry X-band radars capable of accumulating enough data in three years to fill 200,000 DVDs, equivalent to 1.5 petabytes, or one-and-a-half quadrillion bytes. The radars can map Earth during day and night passes and see through clouds and precipitation. The twin radars work like a person's eyes, recognizing 3D scenes with stereo vision, while one eye only distinguishes two dimensions. Both radars can emit beams of light toward the Earth's surface and measure the time until instruments aboard the satellites receive the reflected signals. TanDEM-X's price tag of 165 million euros, or more than $200 million, is split among DLR and Astrium, the manufacturer of the satellite. "This mission demonstrates Germany's expertise in satellite-based radar technology and is, in particular, the outcome of a consistent focus in the national space program," Worner said. "Also, TanDEM-X demonstrates a successful public-private partnership." DLR is responsible for processing raw data streaming down from the satellites and distributing the information to scientific users. A private firm named Infoterra will disseminate data to commercial customers. Officials say Germany's digital elevation model, the first of its kind in the world, could be valuable in hydrology, oceanography, geology, disaster response planning, resource exploration, and national security applications. Germany plans to release the full data set in June 20th, 2010 NASASpaceFlight.com by Chris Bergin ドイツの TanDEM 衛 星 がバイコヌールから Dneper で 打 上 げられた Germany s TanDEM-X launched via Dnepr from Baikonur 6

7 satellites in a closely controlled formation, with typical distances between 250 and 500 m. Primary mission objective is the generation of a consistent global digital elevation model with an unprecedented accuracy according to the HRTI-3 specifications. Beyond that, TanDEM-X provides a highly reconfigurable platform for the demonstration of new SAR techniques and applications. The TDX satellite is a re-build of TSX with only minor modifications, such as additional cold gas propulsion system for constellation fine tuning and an additional S-band receiver to enable a reception of status and GPS position Following numerous delays to its launch date, an ISC Kosmotras Dnepr launch vehicle has finally lifted off with the TanDEM-X satellite into orbit from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 02:14 GMT. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Astrium satellite, together with its twin, TerraSAR-X, TanDEM-X will survey all 150 million square kilometres of Earth s land surface several times during its three-year mission. Overview: The Ukrainian-built Dnepr is a converted SS-18 intercontinental ballistic missile. Most of the SS-18 missiles, the most powerful weapon in the Soviet arsenal, were decommissioned under the terms of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, but could be adapted for civil use. In 1997, Russia and Ukraine formed the International Space Company Kosmotras to convert the missiles into Dnepr launch vehicles. Dnepr is a three-stage vehicle. The first and second stages are original SS-18 stages, used without any modification. The third stage is a modified standard SS-18 third stage equipped with a liquid propellant, two-mode propulsion unit that operates based on a drag scheme in which it flies backwards, dragging the satellite behind it to ensure the most accurate orbit injection. The overall length is 34 m, and the overall diameter is 3 m. The lift-off mass of the rocket is 211 t. It is launched from a silo, being expelled like a mortar round with a charge of black powder, before the main engine ignition some 30 m above the ground. Over 30 commercial satellites have been launched by Dnepr. Kosmotras also provides the launch services, and the vehicle was in action only just last week, when it launched PRISMA, two satellites nicknamed Mango and Tango which are test rendezvous and formation flying in space, along with a French satellite, called Picard. TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) was approved in 2006, and is set to open a new era in space borne radar remote sensing. The first bistatic SAR mission will involve flying the two information broadcast by TSX. The TDX satellite will be designed for a nominal lifetime of five years and has a nominal overlap with TSX of three years. However, TSX holds consumables and resources for up to seven years of operation, allowing for a potential prolongation of the overlap and the TanDEM-X mission duration. The scientific use of the data can be divided into three areas: higher quality Digital Elevation Models (e.g. for hydrology), along-track interferometry (e.g. measurement of ocean currents) and new bi-static applications (e.g. polarimetric SAR interferometry). The potential for commercial applications arises from the increase in the efficiency of the TerraSAR-X data production chain, high quality and efficient cartographic capability, as well as implementation of experimental modes and services. TanDEM-X represents the first step for a constellation of radar satellites and will ensure the German leading position for X-Band SAR technology. The user community will have access to a broad spectrum of scientific, commercial and security applications. The TanDEM-X project just like its sister mission, TerraSAR-X is being implemented on a joint basis by DLR and Astrium, in an arrangement known as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP). This PPP agreement defines many aspects of TanDEM-X, including the financing arrangements and the intended use of the data. The partners (DLR and Astrium) are funding the almost 85 million Euro price tag of the satellite jointly: DLR is contributing 59 million Euro, while Astrium is putting in 26 million Euro. DLR is also developing the ground-based infrastructure required for this mission. It is responsible for planning and executing the mission, for controlling both satellites and for generating the digital relief map of Earth. The use of data for scientific purposes is being coordinated by the DLR Institute for High-Frequency Technology and Radar Systems, based in Oberpfaffenhofen. All commercial marketing is being handled exclusively by Infoterra GmbH (Friedrichshafen), a 7

8 wholly owned subsidiary of Astrium. Four DLR Institutes are charge of developing the TanDEM-X ground segment: Microwaves and Radar Institute HR (Lead), German Remote Sensing Data Center DFD, Remote Sensing technology Institute IMF, and German Space Operation Center GSOC. pixelstats trackingpixel NASASpaceFlight.com Monday, 21 June :14 UK BBC News By Jonathan Amos ドイツの TanDEM-X 衛 星 は 地 球 の 3 次 元 ビューを 観 測 German TanDEM-X satellite seeks 3D view of Earth The TanDEM-X satellite has blasted into orbit on a mission to acquire the most precise 3D map of the Earth's surface. The German radar spacecraft will fly in formation with an identical platform called TerraSAR-X launched in Together, the pair will measure the variation in height across the globe to an accuracy of better than two metres. Their digital elevation model will have myriad uses, from helping military jets fly ultra low to showing relief workers where an earthquake's damage is worst. "Our aim is to generate a model at a resolution and a quality that doesn't exist today," explained Dr Vark Helfritz, from satellite image processing company Infoterra GmbH. "This will be a truly seamless global product - not a patchwork of datasets that have been fitted together," he told BBC News. TanDEM-X was carried into space atop a converted intercontinental ballistic missile from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Dnepr rocket left its silo at 0214 GMT. A signal confirming TanDEM-X had separated successfully from the vehicle was picked up 29 minutes later at an Antarctic tracking station. Dnepr launch The Dnepr emerges from its Baikonur silo to climb to orbit "It is the first time that two satellites have been put in such close formation," said Brigadier General Thomas Reiter, the former astronaut and now executive board member at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). "Their orbits bring them together with a minimum distance of about 200m. This will be very challenging for mission controllers, as you can imagine." The pair's radars work by constantly bouncing microwave pulses off the surface of the planet. By timing how long the signal takes to make the return trip, the instruments can determine differences in height. The compact orbital dance will give the pair "stereo vision", by enabling them to operate an interferometric mode in which one spacecraft acts as a transmitter/receiver and the other as a second receiver. DEM (DLR) A digital elevation model has a host of applications The new satellite was put into a polar orbit that is ever so slightly inclined to the one occupied by TerraSAR-X, some 514km above the planet. The path of TanDEM-X across the sky means it will fly an extremely tight helix around its more established sibling. Graphic of TanDEM-X (Infoterra) Perhaps the best-known, publicly available, near-global, space-borne data-set prior to the German venture came from the US Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) of A decade on, TanDEM-X should provide a big leap forward in capability. "SRTM has a resolution of 30m, but the publicly available resolution is 90m," Dr Helfritz. "With TerraSAR, we 8

9 were able to produce a digital elevation model (DEM) around the 10m mark; and with TanDEM we are going down to two metres. You have to stress the homogeneity - airborne lidar can achieve much higher resolutions but these models are only regional." To achieve the TanDEM-X level of detail on all 150 million sq km of the Earth's land surface will require three years of operation. Radar observations already have extensive military, civil, and scientific applications. Good examples recently include the Eyjafjallajoekull eruption in Iceland and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. In the former, TerraSAR-X's microwave vision was able to look through the ash plume to enable scientists to assess the developing status of the glacier volcano; and in the latter, the satellite has been able to follow the progression of the oil slick day or night from the way radar signals are reflected off the polluted water. This is possible because spreading oil has a tendency to flatten the sea surface and this effect is detectable from space. TerraSAR-X image of Gulf oil slick - 25 April (Infoterra) The presence of oil in the water works to flatten the surface The TerrSAR-X/TanDEM-X venture is operated on the basis of a public-private partnership. The German space agency owns the hardware; EADS Astrium builds it; and Infoterra GbmH has exclusive rights to commercialise the data. Continuity is key to developing the radar applications market and already plans are in place to fly follow-on spacecraft. The next step in development being pursued by the partnership is a high resolution, wide-swathe technology which would allow extremely detailed, large-scale images of the surface to be acquired in a single pass. "We could decide to take a 100km swathe with a resolution of one metre," Brig Gen Reiter said. "That means two things, however. First, we can take a swathe and get all the products we need straight away; but second, the disadvantage is that we get incredible amounts of data and the challenge will be to get this data downlinked. The current downlink stations are reaching their Coloured Eyjafjallajoekull Volcano, Iceland - 15 April, 2010 (DLR) TerraSAR-X looks through the Eyjafjallajoekull Volcano's ash plume to see three craters. Such views are only possible with radar satellites The improved dataset coming from the TanDEM mission should deepen and extend the range of radar applications. Mobile phone limits." This coming bottleneck issue is one of the reasons why Germany has chosen to lead the European Data Relay System (EDRS), a European Space Agency project that would see Earth observation data bounced off geostationary satellites using laser technology. operators will use the elevation model to work out the best places to position their masts; the aviation sector can use the information to plan safer flight paths; city planners need the data to assess flood risks in urban areas; maritime officials can even use the information to track pirates and vessels that fishing illegally. Comparison on datasets (Infoterra) With a lot of processing, TerraSAR data can deliver a very detailed view BBC MMX [ 編 注 ] 動 画 あり :01 21/06/2010 RIA Novosti. 9

10 ロシアの 改 造 転 換 した ICBM がドイツの 衛 星 を 軌 道 に Converted Russian ICBM takes German satellite into orbit MOSCOW, June 21 (RIA Novosti) A converted Russian intercontinental ballistic missile took Germany's TanDEM-X satellite into orbit on Monday, a military spokesman said. The RS-20B carrier rocket lifted off from the Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan at 6:14 Moscow time [2:14 GMT]. This is the 16th launch of an international satellite under the Dnepr program involving Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, which consistent, highly-accurate global digital elevation model. Russian-Ukrainian joint venture Kosmotras uses launch pads at the Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan and Russia's Strategic Missile Forces facilities equipped for RS-20 launches. The RS-20 is the most powerful ICBM in the world. It was first launched in 1973 and is still in service with Russia's Strategic Missile Forces RIA Novosti converts RS-20 ICBMs (classified by NATO as the SS-18 Satan) into carrier rockets to put satellites into low Earth orbit. Around 50 satellites have been put into orbit so far. "The RS-20B rocket took the TanDEM-X satellite into orbit," Col. Vadim Koval said. The 1,350-kg TanDEM-X satellite, with a life span of five years, will survey the land surface of the Earth several times during its mission. The primary objective of the mission is to generate a The 1,350-kg TanDEM-X satellite, with a life span of five years will survey Earth's land surface several times during its mission , ITAR-TASS. ロシアの Dneper ロケットがドイツの 衛 星 を 軌 道 に Russia s Dnepr brings Germany s sat into orbit MOSCOW, June 21 (Itar-Tass) - Russia s Dnepr booster rocket has successfully brought Germany s new Earth observation satellite TanDEM-X into the final orbit. At 06:29 Moscow time Germany s satellite separated from the booster rocket, a spokesman for the Russian Rocket Strategic Forces, Vadim Koval, told Itar-Tass on Monday. 06/22/10 05:34 PM ET spacenews Amy Klamper オービタルが OCO 衛 星 の 交 換 に 選 定 された Orbital Tapped To Launch OCO Replacement NASA has selected Orbital Sciences Corp. to launch the agency s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) replacement satellite aboard a Taurus XL rocket, giving the company a second chance after the original spacecraft was lost in a February 2009 failure involvi... ( 後 略 ) NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 climate-monitoring satellite. Credit: NASA/JPL artist's concept Jun 年 にインドの 森 林 監 視 衛 星 初 号 機 : Jairam Ramesh 環 境 森 林 担 当 大 臣 First Indian forestry satellite in 2013: Jairam Ramesh Pune, Jun 19 (PTI) The first Indian forestry satellite will be launched by ISRO in 2013, Environment and Forest Minister Jairam Ramesh said here today. "India will be one of the few countries in the world to launch a forestry satellite to monitor the green cover every day", he said here today. Jairam, who was addressing an interactive session with public representatives inviting suggestions on the draft Green India mission plan, said protecting forest cover in the country was a serious challenge that had to be met by changing mindset of people. 10

11 Jun 20, 2010, 06.36am IST timesofindia.indiatimes.com Dipannita Das & Sarang Dastane, 2013 年 までに 衛 星 が 森 林 を 監 視 追 跡 By 2013, satellite to track forests PUNE: The quality of life and infrastructure in Pune and 64 other cities across the country will soon improve as the'national Mission on Sustainable Habitat' has been approved by the Prime Minister. Disclosing this during a public consultation on the National Mission for A Green India here on Saturday, Union minister for environment and forests also said that the first Indian forestry satellite will be launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) in The interactive session was organised by the Centre for Environment Education (CEE). The mission aims at making the 65 cities, which are also covered under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), climate resilient by improving their green cover, Ramesh said. The level of urbanisation is high in states like Maharashtra, Gujarat Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The mission seeks to promote energy efficiency as an essential component of urban planning, he added. Wed, 23 June, By Amy Klamper 米 下 院 議 員 は 重 量 級 打 上 げロケットの 早 急 な 開 発 を 要 求 U.S. House Members Call for Immediate Development of Heavy-lift Rocket WASHINGTON A bipartisan group of more than 60 members of the U.S. House of Representatives wrote to President Barack Obama Tuesday urging that he direct NASA to immediately begin development of a heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of sending NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle on deep space missions. In a June 22 letter to the president signed by 62 House lawmakers, including 25 Democrats and 16 members of the powerful House Appropriations Committee, the members say it is in the nation s best interest to leverage the $10 billion NASA would spend up to five years studying heavy-lift propulsion technologies before initiating development of a heavy-lift launch vehicle no later than The lawmakers assert that a heavy-lift exploration system could be operational within six years and achieved within NASA s Exploration topline budget. NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stands to receive a total of $23.6 billion between 2011 and 2015 under White House budget projections released in February. That figure includes $3.1 billion for heavy-lift and in-space propulsion has already invested in Constellation, a 5-year-old effort to research, $6 billion to foster development of commercial crew replace the retiring space shuttle with Orion and the Ares family of rockets. Obama marked the program for cancellation in his systems and $12 billion for various advanced technology research and demonstration projects spending proposal delivered to lawmakers in February. We support the immediate development and production of a heavy-lift launch vehicle that, in conjunction with the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, may be used for either lunar or deep-space exploration to an asteroid and beyond, as you said in Florida, the lawmakers say in the letter. During an April 15 speech at NASA s Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Obama said NASA would continue development of Constellation s Orion crew capsule for Rep. C.A. "Dutch" Ruppersberger Credit: SPACE NEWS PHOTO BY SHELIA VEMMER use as a lifeboat aboard the international space station and Saturday, June 19, 2010 flametrench.flatoday.net/ 時 事 風 刺 漫 画 : NASA の 議 会 との 対 応 Jeff Parker Cartoon: Jeff Parker on NASA's dealings with Congress 11

12 June 18th, 2010 pehub.com Connie Loizos [ 編 注 ] Elon Musk は SpaceX だけでなく トヨタと 電 気 自 動 車 を 開 発 提 携 の Tesla Motors の CEO Elon Musk 語 る なぜ SpaceX のロケットが 今 まで 世 にあったものと 比 べて より 早 くでき より 安 く そしてより 軽 量 か Elon Musk on Why His Rockets Are Faster, Cheaper and Lighter Than What You ve Seen Before On Wednesday, I was on a call with Elon Musk, CEO of both Tesla Motors and space exploration company SpaceX. The latter company was announcing what it s hailing as the largest single commercial launch deal ever a $492 million contract to carry into space the mobile telecommunications satellites of Iridium Communications, beginning in orbit a satellite for Malaysian satellite maker ATSB it has over $2.5 billion in revenue under contract. In addition to its partnership with Iridium, the company has booked orders to carry to orbit a giant satellite for Loral Space & Communications and to conduct 12 resupply flights to the International Space Station on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Whether it manages to successfully complete all its missions remains to be seen, but on the call, Musk spoke at length about why SpaceX is far more cost-efficient than heritage aerospace companies; I thought the detail he offered was pretty interesting. If you re a space nut, you might too. Though SpaceX has launched just two three rockets successfully in its history including sending one of its Falcon 9 rockets into a 155-mile orbit earlier this month and, last July. delivering to 答 えは 単 純 ではない 他 には 簡 単 に 真 似 できない ポイントは 宇 宙 輸 送 の 問 題 にシ リコンバレーの OS と DNA を 適 用 した 事 中 間 管 理 者 のいない 垂 直 統 合 組 織 オウトソーシングしない コスト 削 減 には 一 部 の 分 野 だけ Loizos The answer to that is complex and I don t like to give sound bites because it oversimplifies the thing and it sort of comes across as wrong to me, if I were to put myself in the shoes of someone hearing that bite. It s sort of like when they say: why is Southwest Airlines so much more efficient, and you could say, well, it s because they use 737s. Well, if it were that easy, then anyone could do that. If you go to heart of it, SpaceX operates with really with a sort of Silicon Valley operating system and DNA as applied to problem of space transport. And in that sense, culturally, the way things operate are closer to an Intel or Google or Apple in the way that it functions. We re quite vertically integrated, which increases the number of problems you have to solve, but you also have fewer middlemen. I think the aerospace guys got into this craze of outsourcing everything, then even the suppliers would outsource, and eventually it got to where you had to go four companies down before you found someone cutting metal. And there s an old maxim that if you want efficiency, you have to cut out the middleman, and so we ve done that at SpaceX. Also, to the degree that we inherited legacy components, we inherited the legacy cost structure, and 12

13 でなく 全 体 をやれないとだめ 全 体 にかなりの 技 術 革 新 とプロ セス 革 新 を 持 ち 込 んだ 垂 直 統 合 されているが 内 部 の 対 話 に 重 点 やったのは 常 識 的 な 事 例 えば 1,2 段 同 じ 燃 料 で タンクは1つですむとか Falcon 9 の 上 段 は 第 1 段 を 短 く したもの だれも 今 までこういうや り 方 しなかった Falcon 9 の 1 段 上 段 は Merlin Falcon 1 の 1 段 も 同 規 模 の 経 済 タンクは FSW 摩 擦 攪 拌 溶 接 法 で 安 く 軽 くなっている So, yeah, those are some examples. that necessitated rebuilding almost the whole market in order to achieve significant breakthroughs. Because if you look at the cost of our market, if you break it down, it s the cost of the engines, the structures, the electronics, the launch operation, and the overhead of the business, and in order to make a significant breakthrough, you have to really see improvements across the board, systemwide. Like if somebody gave you free engines or free structure or free electronics, you d still only make maybe a 20 percent improvement in the actual cost of launch; to have a 50 or 60 or 70 percent improvement, you have to see improvement in all of those areas. So I think we ve come up with significant technology innovations in all of those areas; we ve come up with process innovations. We re vertically integrated but there s a strong focus internally on communications everyone is in a cube, including me. We have the factory collocated with engineering, which helps tighten the loop between production and engineering, because however you design a vehicle, that sets the best possible cost number for that vehicle. Some of what we ve done is really just common sense for example, using the same propellant in the upper and lower stages means that operationally, you only need to have one set of fuel tanks. If you can imagine a situation where you have a kerosene first stage, hydrogen upper stage, and solid rocket side boosters, you ve just tripled your cost right there. Also, the upper stage of a Falcon 9 is simply a short version of the first stage. That may seem pretty obvious, but nobody else does that. They tend to create upper stage in a totally different way than they create the first stage. The Merlin engine we used it on the upper stage of Falcon 9, on the main stage of Falcon 9 and on the first stage of Falcon 1. So we get economies of scale in use of the Merlin engine. Our tanks are friction stir welded, [aluminum] skin and stringer designed as opposed to machined aluminum, [giving us] a 20 fold advantage in the cost of materials, and our stage ends up being lighter because geometrically, we can have deeper stringers. Fri, 18 June, By Debra Werner LA はミサイル 警 戒 衛 星 を 山 火 事 追 尾 に 使 用 を 嘆 願 中 LA Pleading for Missile Warning Satellites To Track Wildfires SAN FRANCISCO Los Angeles County is seeking to add a new tool to its arsenal of firefighting weapons: satellites. Before California s next fire season, county officials hope to gain access to infrared data gathered by U.S. Air Force missile warning satellites to assist them in detecting wildfires. On June 16, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors sent letters to senators and representatives in Los Angeles congressional delegation asking for help in establishing a program. The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors respectfully requests your consideration in exploring the feasibility of implementing a pilot program to assess the viability of utilizing satellite technology for early detection of wildland fires on Federal land within Los Angeles County, according to a copy of the letter obtained by Space News. The supervisors added that a recent county report on automated, fire-detection systems found that U.S. Air Force Defense Support Program (DSP) satellites would be particularly useful in spotting fires. The infrared sensors constantly look for the telltale signature of a flame from a missile launch, with automatic analysis of the data, according to the letter signed by all five county supervisors. Since a missile flame has characteristics similar to a wildland fire, the satellites should be able to detect forest and brush fires just as effectively. DSP satellites, which scan the globe every 10 seconds, have proved their ability to spot wildfires. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Air Force participated in the Hazard Support Program, according to Anthony Roake, spokesman for the Air Force Space Command in Colorado Springs, Colo. That program, led by the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office, combined information derived from U.S. military and civil satellites to detect wildfires in the United States and volcanic activity around the globe and reported the results to local agencies. Additional testing of the Hazard Support Program continued in the late 1990s, said Richard Davies, executive director of the Western Disaster Center, a nonprofit research organization based in Mountain View, Calif. In spite of successful demonstrations, the Hazard Support System was halted in 2001 when the military was ready to hand off the program but no civil federal agency offered the funding needed to operate and maintain it, government officials said. Nearly a decade later, the necessary ground equipment still exists to enable the DSP constellation to assist in wildfire detection; however, a period of operational testing would be required to prove its utility, according to Dee Pack, remote sensing 13

14 department director for the Aerospace Corp. of El Segundo, Calif. Since 2000, the technology has been used for other applications. It could be used for fire detection again if the government wanted to do that. The Aerospace Corp. has been involved in the research and development of satellite-based fire detection systems for more than a decade. We have been conducting research on using satellites to monitor fires and volcanoes, said Aerospace Corp. spokeswoman Lindsay Chaney. We have continued to refine the software. When Los Angeles County government representatives began investigating the use of advanced technology to aid in wildfire detection, they met with officials from the Aerospace Corp. to learn about satellite-based fire detection. The county recognized they have a problem with early fire detection, and they were forward thinking enough to consider using satellites, Pack said. During a May 25 meeting, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors voted unanimously to pursue a comprehensive fire detection and fire suppression program that included the use of satellites. With that goal in mind, the supervisors drafted a letter to their congressional delegation. County officials also plan to contact the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), Algird Leiga, chairman of Los Angeles County s Quality and Productivity Commission, told supervisors during the meeting. NGA officials declined to discuss the merits of using satellites to assist in combating wildfires in Los Angeles. NGA spokesman Marshall Hudson said the agency cannot support state or local agencies directly. Instead, NGA can provide geospatial information to another federal agency that is leading the government s response to a disaster, according to rules established by the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of When the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, the lead federal agency for the 2007 California wildfires, requested NGA provide geospatial information that would aid them in supporting the state s efforts in combating the fires and assessing the scope of damage, the agency gladly did so, Hudson wrote in an . NGA provided both imagery and geospatial products in support of the federal response to that disaster. Air Force officials also declined to comment on any specific plans to use DSP satellites to spot fires in Los Angeles County. The Air Force operates the DSP satellites, which were built by Northrop Grumman Corp. of Los Angeles and launched from 1970 to Northrop Grumman spokesman Bob Bishop said DSP s infrared sensor has been used to aid in prediction and recovery from natural disasters, such as volcanic eruptions and forest fires. Northrop Grumman continues to support the DSP constellation, but the Air Force operates DSP satellites and manages the use of the sensors for environmental monitoring, Bishop said. He referred questions about any future plans to use DSP sensors for fire detection to the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center in Los Angeles. Air Force officials there referred all questions to the Air Force Space Command. Los Angeles County is the most populous county in the United States, but it also includes large tracts of federal land, including the Angeles National Forest and the Los Padres National Forest. More than 645 square kilometers of the Angeles National Forest was destroyed and two firefighters were killed by a blaze that began in late August of last year. [ 編 注 ] ブッシュ ファイアは 毎 年 カリフォルニアに 発 生 被 害 甚 大 のため DSP 利 用 はもっともか 消 防 ヘリの 手 に 負 えるうちに 発 見 し 処 置 できるとよい 17 June By Jeremy Hsu 米 空 軍 は 将 来 に 超 音 速 兵 器 と 宇 宙 機 を 見 込 む Air Force Sees Hypersonic Weapons and Spaceships in Future open up access to space. The experimental X-51A Waverider used a rocket booster and an air-breathing scramjet to reach a speed of Mach 5 and achieve the longest hypersonic flight ever powered by such an engine on May 26. That technology might not only deliver cargo quickly to different parts of the globe, but could also transform the space industry and spawn true space planes that take off and land from the same runway. The wealth A recent United States Air Force scramjet test has hinted at a future where hypersonic vehicles streak through the sky at many times the speed of sound around the world, and perhaps even of possibilities offered by aerospace vehicles that can ride their own shockwaves likely explains why the project has drawn support from the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research 14

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<31322D899C8CA982D982A95F985F95B65F2E696E6464> SUMMARY Japan is one of the most earthquakeprone country in the world, and has repeatedly experienced serious major damages. No matter how serious the impact of earthquake disasters, each and every time,

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