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1 PC HPC

2 Agenda PC

3

4 Linux OS UNIX OS Linux Linux OS

5 HPC 1 1CPU CPU

6 Beowulf PC (PC) PC CPU(Pentium ) Beowulf: NASA Tomas Sterling Donald Becker 2 (PC ) Beowulf

7 PC!!

8 Linux Cluster (1) Level 1: OS Level 2:

9 Linux Cluster (2) Level 3: ( )

10 ( ) SofTek PC Cluster (24 node) Spec CPU: Pentiumlll 500MHz * 24 RAM:12GB Network: Fast Ethernet(100BaseTX) Peak Performance: 13.6GFlops OS: LASER5 Linux6.0 (kernel 2.2.5) Compiler: PGI CDK Programming Model: C/C++, F77,f90,HPF Parallel Programming: MPI, PVM, HPF

11

12 Beowulf type 1. 2.

13 bottleneck Processor Memory Processor Onchip Cache 16K-32KB Cache 128K 4MB Memory

14 Pentium II 300MHz

15 Pentium II 300MHz

16

17 1CPU 1CPU/SMP Linpack LAPACK ScaLAPACK ATLAS ASCI-Red Opt. BLAS PBLAS Parallel BLAS BLAS BLAS Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram Basic Linear Algebra Communication Subprogram BLACS PVM/MPI..

18 BLAS Level Level 1 BLAS Vector-Vector Operations + S V V * V Level 2 BLAS Matrix-Vector Operations V M * V Level 3 BLAS Matrix-Matrix Operations + M M M * M

19 BLAS Level 1 BLAS y = y + s * x Operation Level 2 BLAS y = y + A* x Operation Level 3 BLAS C = C + A*B Operation

20 BLAS MFLOPS Level 3 BLAS Level 2 BLAS Level 1 BLAS Order of Vector/Matrix

21 LU Linpack &LAPACK) ATLAS BLAS LAPACK (BLAS 3) ASCI-Red BLAS Normal BLAS PGI compiler Linpack (BLAS1)

22 Linpack LAPACK : Level 1 BLAS : Coding Style : Cache : Level 3 BLAS : Block algorithm Cache BLAS Cache ATLAS (Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software) ASCI-Red BLAS

23

24 TCP/IP (1) Socket I/F TCP/IP window ack check sum CPU TCP/IP mbuf TCP CPU

25 TCP/IP (2) MTU(Ethernet:1500byte) large packet OS interrupt

26 IP USER Space Kernel Space NIC TCP/UDP TCP/IP

27 (NIC) API M-VIA (Linux VI Architecture GAMMA (Linux Active Message M-VIA, GAMMA MPI

28 M-VIA (A High Performance Modular VIA for Linux) [3] VI Architecture API NIC DEC Tulip (DC21*4*, ) chip, Intel i8255x (for x=7, 8 or 9) chip, Packet Engines GNIC-I, GNIC-II Gigabit Ethernet M-VIA

29 MVICH [4] VI Architecture MPICH MPI (0.0.3 bsend, pack/unpack M-VIA

30 Pentium III 500MHz 2, Memory 384MB, Intel EtherExpress Pro/100 NIC, 100Base Switching Hub, Linux byte MPICH MVICH 1.9

31 MPICH socket(tcp) MVICH(M-VIA) M-VIA 4Kbyte MPICH MVICH 34% 139%(32byte)

32 GAMMA (Genoa Active Message Machine) [5] communication handlers Active Messages [7] API NIC DEC Tulip (DC21*4*, ) chipsets, Intel i8255x (for x=7, 8 or 9) chipsets

33 MPI/GAMMA [6] GAMMA MPI MPICH Fast Ethernet MPI

34 Pentium III 500MHz 2, Memory 384MB, DEC DC21143 NIC, 100Base Switching Hub, Linux byte MPICH MPI/GAMMA 3.1

35 MPICH socket(tcp) MPI/GAMMA GAMMA 8Kbyte MPICH MPI/GAMMA 49% 404% (32byte)

36 IP

37 MPICH socket(tcp) MVICH(M-VIA) M-VIA MPI/GAMMA GAMMA IP

38 ( ) Fast Ethernet API MPI GAMMA MPI/GAMMA Fast Ethernet Gigabit Fast Ethernet

39 ScaLAPACK ScaLAPACK(ScalLable Linear Algebra PACKage) LAPACK PGI CDK ScaLAPCK LU xdlutime [8] Pentium III ATLAS BLAS ASCI-Red BLAS ScaLAPACK MPI MPICH p4 MPI/GAMMA BLAS MPI

40 Pentium III 500MHz 4, Memory 256MB, DEC DC21143 NIC, 100Base Switching Hub, Linux CPU N N cpu1 cpu cpu3 cpu4

41 ScaLAPACK Matrix size 2000 ASCI-red, MPI/GAMMA

42 ScaLAPACK ASCI-MPICH ASCI-MPI/GAMMA 4% 79% (size 100)

43 1 VAMPIR VAMPIRtrace MPICH MPI/GAMMA

44 2 MPICH(p4)

45 3 MPI/GAMMA

46 4 850Mflop/s

47

48 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

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