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1 Library and Information Science No , p Episodic Frame and Thematic Frame in Television News and Newspapers: An Analysis of the Coverage of General Elections in Japan Yuko MATSUBA Shuichi UEDA Résumé Purpose: Despite the rise of the Internet, both television and newspapers still play major roles as news media. This paper clarifies the differences between television and newspapers as news media during the period of a general election campaign in Japan. Methods: News stories reporting on the election of The House of Representatives of Japan were analyzed using episodic or thematic news frames Iyengar News was categorized according to the type of news and the type of frame. Results: News programs on television NHK and five commercial broadcast stations broadcast 172 news stories during the 2009 election campaign from 18 August 2009 to 1 September There were 386 news items in the Asahi Shimbun newspaper related to the election during the same period. The amount of coverage was large at both the beginning and the end of the election campaign. Television and newspapers showed similar tendencies. Moreover, no changes were observed between 2005 and Television news was composed of equal amounts of general news and featured news, while featured news accounted for about 80% of the news in the newspaper. On television, there were many episodic frames mainly portraying individuals involved in the election campaign. A large majority of newspaper coverage, however, dealt with theme frames. Yuko MATSUBA: School of Library and Information Science, Keio University gmail.com Shuichi UEDA: School of Library and Information Science, Keio University z5.keio.jp

2 I. A. B. C. D. II. A. B. III. A. B. C. IV. I. A. news % 90%18%16% 63% 29 85% 80% 72%

3 Library and Information Science No B investigative report 6 C the agenda-setting function of mass media 8 W P. F. R. K status conferral function M. E. D

4 limited effect model 1970 agenda setting what to think what to think about salience the spiral of silence 14 = inter-media consonance 16 = = 86

5 Library and Information Science No D. 1. framing research 12 framing effects collective action frames decision frames news frames issue frames episodic frame thematic frame

6 12 II. A NHK NHK 5 B

7 Library and Information Science No III. A :30 65 NHK 1 NHK 6: :00 45 NHK 7 NHK 19: / NHK 21:00 60 NNN NNN 11: /30 11: :54 64 NEWS ZERO NNN 23:55 60 NNN 18: /30 NEWS23 JNN 23: : /21 NEXT JNN 17:30 80 FNN FNN 11:30 30 JAPAN FNN 23: :58 25 WEEKEND FNN 17:30 30 LIVE FNN 22: /30 ANN 21: /31 15 ANN 6:30 90 J ANN 17:30 25 TXN 23: NHK NHK 1 89

8 2 NHK 33 1, ,025 NNN JNN FNN ANN ,131 TXN , , ,031 1 NHK NHK ANN , ,960 1, B

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19 Library and Information Science No % % % % % % % % 17.9% 50.0% 32.1% 100.0% 18.5% 59.9% 21.7% 100.0% 0 0.0% % % % % % % % 0.0% 25.0% 75.0% 100.0% 14.3% 34.4% 51.3% 100.0% % % % % % % % % 12.5% 42.5% 45.0% 100.0% 17.5% 53.8% 28.8% 100.0% % % % % % % % % 28.8% 10.2% 61.0% 100.0% 19.5% 9.9% 70.6% 100.0% % 0 0.0% % % % % % % 18.2% 0.0% 81.8% 100.0% 32.3% 15.3% 52.4% 100.0% % % % % % % % % 27.1% 8.6% 64.3% 100.0% 24.3% 11.9% 63.8% 100.0% % % % % % % % % 25.3% 23.0% 51.7% 100.0% 18.8% 46.7% 34.6% 100.0% 2 8.3% % % % % % % % 8.7% 13.0% 78.3% 100.0% 21.6% 26.6% 51.8% 100.0% % % % % % % % % 21.8% 20.9% 57.3% 100.0% 19.6% 41.1% 39.4% 100.0%

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23 Library and Information Science No % 33.4% 9.8% 81.4% c % 28.1% 23.6% 76.4% IV

24 5 I enq_ pdf p p p p 7 W R N p 106

25 Library and Information Science No p W Lazarsfeld, P. F. Merton, R. K. W 1968 p McCombs, M. E.; Shaw, D. L. The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly. 1972, vol. 36, p p p 14 Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth p no. 60 p Noelle-Neumann, E. Return to the concept of powerful mass media. Studies of Broadcasting. 1973, no. 9, p no. 56 p Nelson, T. E.; Willey, E. A. Issue frames that strike a value balance: A political psychology perspective. Framing Public Life: Perspective on Media and our Understanding of Social World. Reese, S. D.; Gandy, O. H. Jr.; Grant, A. E., ed. Mahwah, LEA, 2001, p no. 12 p Iyengar, S. Is anyone responsible?: How television frames political issues. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1991, 195p no. 50 p p NHK

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