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1 The Impact of Digitization on Music Production: From a Perspective of Modularity 51 2 pp I 21 3 Information and Communication Technology, ICT

2 MP3 CD 2 3 II CD (1) MIDI ICLSI Zhu & MacQuarrie (2003) 3 Premkumar (2003) 2

3 MIDIMusical Instrument Digital Interface 1982 MIDI MIDI TCP/IP MIDI 1983 DX-7 FMFrequency Modulation 1990 FM PCMPulse Code Modulation CD DATDigital Audio Tape (2) MIDI MIDI MIDI MIDI MIDI 1982 MIDI MIDI MIDI MIDI Apple Computer Macintosh 1987 Macintosh II Macintosh SE Performer MIDI MIDI Macintosh (3) 3

4 MIDI DATDigital Audio Tape DAT DAT CD DAT wave 500 DAT DAT 1/30 1/ /44100 wave AIFF MIDI 4.comhttp://

5 III 1980 IT IT (1) 5, 2002pp Scott Morton ed. (1991) 6 Grantham (2000)2003 5

6 (2) Baldwin & Clark (1997; 2000) IBM IBM OS 360 Baldwin & Clark Baldwin & Clark, 1995; Aoki, 2001 Baldwin & Clark 1995;

7 1995; IT (3) Baldwin & Clark IT Baldwin & Clark IBM 360 OS Intel Microsoft Dell Malone et al., 1987TCP/IP 7

8 , 2002 IV 2002 (1) 1 7 CD 7 8

9 1 MIDI MIDI MIDI DAT DAT Task Partitioning von Hippel,

10 2 a) b) 10

11 2 Baldwin & Clark Design Rule (2) 11

12 1990 ReasonCubaseLogic Audio WIRED (2001; 2002) 12

13 Nardi et al.2002 Intensional Network V 13

14 Aoki, M. (2000). Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 14

15 Baldwin, C.Y. and K.B. Clark (1997). Managing in an Age of Modularity. Harvard Business Review. Vol.75, No.4, pp Baldwin, C.Y. and K.B. Clark (2000). Design Rules: The Power of Modularity. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Grantham, C.E. (2000). Hollywood: A Business Model for the Future? In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCPR Conference on Computer Personnel Research. ACM, Chicago, IL. April Malone, T.W., J. Yates and R.I. Benjamin (1987). Electronic Markets and Electronic Hierarchies. Communications of the ACM. Vol.30, No.6, pp Nardi, B.A., S. Whittaker and H. Schwarz (2002). NetWORKers and their Activity in Intensional Networks. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Vol.11, pp Premkumar, G. P. (2003). Alternate Distribution Strategies for Digital Music. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 46, No. 9. pp Scott Morton, M.S. ed. (1991). The Corporation of the 1990s. Information Technology and Organizational Transformation. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. von Hippel, E. (1990). Task Partitioning: An Innovation Process Variable. Research Policy. Vol.19, No.5, pp Zhu, K. & B. MacQuarrie (2003). The Economics of Digital Bundling: The Impact of Digitization and Bundling on the Music Industry. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 46, No. 9. pp WIRED (2001). Pickin', Grinnin' and PCin', Web source, URL: (May. 30, 2001; Last access: Oct. 16, 2003). WIRED (2002). Making Your Bad Tunes Sound Good, Web source, URL: (Jul. 23, 2002; Last access: Oct. 16, 2003). 15

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