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18 = hυ = h c λ υ λ (ev) = 1240 λ W=NE = Nhc λ W= N λ

19 / / Φe = dqe dt J/s Φ = km Φe(λ)v(λ)dλ THBV3_0101JA

20 Qe = Φedt (W s) Q = Φdt lm s Ee = dφe ds E = dφ ds Φ Φ THBV3_0102JA

21 Me = dφe ds M = dφ ds Φ Φ THBV3_0103JA le = dφe dw Φe: w : l = dφ dw Φ : w : Φ Φ THBV3_0104JA

22 Le = dle ds cosθ le: s : θ : L = dl ds cosθ l THBV3_0105JA

23 π π π π

24

25

26 4 THBV3_0201JA

27 ν ψ IIIV ν ν ψ THBV3_0202JA

28 ν ην Pν 1 η(ν) = (1 R) ( ) Ps k 1+1 kl ν ν ν

29 THBV3_0203JA

30 THBV3_0204JA THBV3_0205JA THBV3_0206JA

31 (δ) THBV3_0207JA

32

33

34

35 THBV3_0301JA

36 THBV3_0302JA µ

37 THBV3_0305JA THBV3_0306JA

38 THBV3_0307JA THBV3_0308JA

39 ± !0 80 ± !0 3-M ± THBV3_0309JA

40 THBV3_0310JA

41 THBV3_0311JA

42

43

44

45 Γ Ec Γ V BIAS THBV3_0401JA THBV3_0402JAa

46 THBV3_0402JAb % 25 % % 2.5 % 0.5 % 0.25 % % 1 % 0.1 % THBV3_0403JB

47 µ

48 100M 200S 200M 400K 400U 400S 401K 500K(S-20) 500U 500S 501K(S-25) 502K 700K(S-1) UV µ

49 THBV3_0404JA

50 THBV3_0405JA Sk = I K L P (A/W)

51 h c η (%) = Sk = λ e h: J s c: m s -1 e: C 1240 Sk 100 (%) λ

52 THBV3_0406JA THBV3_0407JA

53 THBV3_0408JA

54 THBV3_0409JA

55 THBV3_0410JA

56 THBV3_0411JA

57

58

59 THBV3_0412JA δ = a E k δ 1 = I d1 I K δ n = I dn I d(n-1) Ip = Ik α δ 1 δ 2 δ n Ip = α δ 1 δ 2 δ n Ik

60 µ = α δ 1 δ 2 δ n V µ = (a E k ) n = a n ( ) kn = A V kn n+1 THBV3_0413JA

61 THBV3_0414JA

62 THBV3_0415JA THBV3_0416JA

63 THBV3_0417JA THBV3_0418JA

64 FWHM FWTM THBV3_0419JA

65 THBV3_0420JA THBV3_0421JA

66 THBV3_0422JA C.R.T. = (τ 1 2 +τ 2 2 ) 1/2

67 C 1 µa 1 µa 0.1 µa 0.01 µa 10 µa 1 µa 0.1 µa 0.1 µa 0.1 µa

68 THBV3_0423JA

69 THBV3_0424JA (Ip 0 (Ip 1 +Ip 2 +Ip 3 +Ip 4 ) 1) 100 (%) Ip 0 = Ip 1 +Ip 2 +Ip 3 +Ip 4

70 R=100 kω THBV3_0425JA Ip 02 Ip 01 = 4 Ip 2 Ip 1 Ip 02 Ip 01 (Ip 2 Ip 1)-(Ip 02 Ip 01) (Ip 02 Ip 01) 100(%) (Ip 2 Ip 1 ) = (Ip 02 Ip 01 )

71 THBV3_0426JA THBV3_0427JA

72 THBV3_0428JAa THBV3_0428JAb

73 THBV3_0429JA

74 THBV3_0430JA THBV3_0431JA THBV3_0432JA

75 THBV3_0433JA

76 THBV3_0434JA

77 PMTR V 1 µa THBV3_0435JA

78 1 µa THBV3_0436JA H L = ((I MAX -I MIN ) Ii) 100 (%)

79 0.1 µa THBV3_0437JA H = ((I MAX I MIN) Ii) 100 (%)

80 THBV3_0438JA

81 i S = AT 5/4 e (-eψ/kt)

82 THBV3_0439JA

83 THBV3_0440JA

84 EADCI (lm) = (A) (A/lm)

85 THBV3_0441JA ENI = (2e Id µ B) 1/2 S (W) e: Id: µ: B: S:

86 THBV3_0442JA SN= I p i p+d SN I p i p F= (S/N) 2 in (S/N) 2 out

87 F= 1+1 δ 1 +1 δ 1 δ δ 1 δ 2 δ n F δ (δ-1) i p = µ(2 e I k α B F) 1/2 i p = µ{2 e I k α B(1+1 δ 1 +1 δ 1 δ δ 1 δ 2 δ n )} 1/2 I p = I k α µ SN = I p i p I = ( K α 1 ) 1/2 2eB 1+1 δ 1 +1 δ 1 δ δ 1 δ 2 δ n I SN K 1 ( ) 1/2 2eB δ (δ-1) SN= (I k 2eB) 1/ I k (µa) B (MHz)

88 SN= I k (2eB δ (δ-1) (I k +2I d )+N 2 A) 1/2 I SN= k (2eB δ (δ-1) (I k+2i d)) 1/2 η I k : λ: c: P: δ: I d : e: h: η: B: N A :

89 SN= I k = (2 e (I k +2 I d )F B) 1/2 I k µ (2e(I ph +2I d )FB µ 2 ) 1/2 = I p 2e(I p +2I da )µfb = S p P i 2e(S p Pi+2I da )µfb S p Pi= 2e(S p Pi+2I da )µfb (S p Pi) 2 2e(S p Pi+2I da )µfb= 0 S p Pi= ( 2eSpµFB) ± ( 2eSpµFB)2 4Sp 2 ( 4eIdaµFB) 2Sp 2 eµfb Pi= + Sp (eµfb) 2 + 4eIdaµFB Sp A/W A/W ENI THBV3_0444JA

90

91 THBV3_0445JA I I Iθ = I S cos 2 θ+i P sin 2 θ = (I P +I S )(1 P I S cos 2 θ) 2 I P +I S I S : I P : I I O = P+I S, P = 2 I P I S I P+I S θ = I O (1 P cos 2 θ)

92 THBV3_0446JA THBV3_0447JA

93 THBV3_0448JA

94

95

96

97 THBV3_0501JA THBV3_0502JA I b = V (R 1+R 2+ +R 6+R 7) I b = V (Dz1) R 1+R 2+R 3

98 THBV3_0503JA

99 THBV3_0504JA THBV3_0505JA

100 THBV3_0506JA

101 THBV3_0507JA

102 THBV3_0508JA Q 0 = Tw V 0 R L Q 3100 Q 0 C Q 0 V 3 Q 2 = Q 3 2 Q Q 1 = 2 = 2 Q 3 4 C 2 50 Q 0 V 2 C 1 25 Q 0 V 1

103 Q 0 50 mv 50 Ω 1 µs = 1 nc C C 2 50 C nc 100 V 1 nc 100 V 1 nc 100 V =1 nf = 0.5 nf = 0.25 nf

104 THBV3_0509JA THBV3_0510JA

105 THBV3_0511JA

106 THBV3_0512JA THBV3_0513JA

107 C1 R1 -H.V SHV-R MAGNETIC SHIELD ACC DY1 DY2 DY3 DY4 DY5 DY6 DY7 DY8 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C8 C9 R17 C7 SIGNAL OUTPUT BNC-R R1: 33 kω R2, R15: 390 kω R3, R4, R13: 470 kω R5: 499 kω R6, R16: 360 kω R7: 536 kω R8 to R11: 300 kω R12: 150 kω R14: 430 kω R17: 50 Ω C1: 2200 µf C2, C3: 4700 µf C4: 0.01 µf C5, C6: µf C7: µf C8, C9: 1000 pf THBV3_0514JA Ω THBV3_0515JA

108 THBV3_0516JA

109 THBV3_0517JA µ THBV3_0518JA

110 THBV3_0519JA

111 THBV3_0520JA

112 THBV3_0521JA

113

114

115 ± ± 0.05 ± C

116 THBV3_0522JA THBV3_0523JA THBV3_0524JA

117 ZC = l 2πfC V a = E 0e -t/rc R a R a+r L

118 THBV3_0525JA THBV3_0526JA

119 1 f C = 2πC S R L (Hz) THBV3_0527JA R 0 = Rin RL R in+r L R in V 0' = V 0 R in+r L

120 THBV3_0528JA V 0 = -I p R f

121 THBV3_0529JA THBV3_0530JA

122 THBV3_0531JA V 0 = Q p /C f V 0 = 1 t C f 0 I p d t THBV3_0532JA

123 THBV3_0533JA Q τ C V(t) = (e -t/τ e -t/τs ) τ τ s Q V(t) (e t/τ e t/τs ) C Q τ V(t) (e t/τs e t/τ ) C τ s

124 THBV3_0534JA THBV3_0535JA

125 THBV3_0536JA

126

127 THBV3_0537JA S = = H out H in 3tµ 4r S' = S1 S2 S3 S n = 3t 1 µ 1 3t 2 µ 2 3t 3µ 3 4r 1 4r 2 4r 3 3t nµ n 4r n

128 µ µ THBV3_0538JA

129 THBV3_0539JA µ THBV3_0540JA

130 µ THBV3_0541JAa

131 µ THBV3_0541JAb THBV3_0542JA

132 THBV3_0543JA

133 THBV3_0544JA

134 M ± 0.1 THBV3_0545JAa ! !0 3-M ± A THBV3_0545JAb

135 ± THBV3_0546JA

136 THBV3_0547JA

137

138

139 THBV3_0601JA THBV3_0602JA

140 = (Nd Np)= η α THBV3_0603JA

141 THBV3_0604JAa THBV3_0604JAb

142 8888 THBV3_0605JA

143 THBV3_0606JA THBV3_0607JA

144 N = M 1 M t THBV3_0608JA

145 THBV3_0609JA

146 SN Iph 2eNFB{Iph+2(Ib+Id)} Iph: e: NF: Ib: Id: B: Ns T SN Ns+2(Nb+Nd) Ns: Nb: Nd: T: SN Iph 2eNF{Iph+2(Ib+Id)} SN Ns 2{Ns+2(Nb+Nd)}

147

148

149 THBV3_0701JA

150 THBV3_0702JAa THBV3_0702JAb

151 THBV3_0703JA THBV3_0704JA

152 R = P P P P H H 2 THBV3_0705JA

153 THBV3_0706JA

154 δ

155 THBV3_0707JA

156 THBV3_0708JA N η α µ Ip = τs = = 6.3

157 THBV3_0709JA THBV3_0710JA

158 n Σ n = 1 Pi P 100 D LTS = n P P Pi n DLTS = 1.0 % THBV3_0711JA

159 B D STS = (1 ) A

160 1 2 3 THBV3_0712JA

161 THBV3_0713JAa THBV3_0713JAb

162 THBV3_0713JAc

163 C C THBV3_0714JA

164

165

166

167 THBV3_0801JA

168 + THBV3_0802JA THBV3_0803JA

169 5 (mv/div) 1 (µs/div) THBV3_0804JA

170 0 V 1000 V 50 (ms/div) THBV3_0805JA

171 +15 V +0.3 V +1.1 V THBV3_0806JA +15 V (10 kω) THBV3_0807JA

172 + - LLD. RL 50 Ω +5 V GND THBV3_0808JA

173 THBV3_0809JA

174 THBV3_0810JA (%/ C) THBV3_0811JA

175 THBV3_0812JA

176 5 V 200 ns/div. THBV3_0813JA

177

178 LLD. +5 V 20 bit Counter 90 MHz 20 bit Latch I/O 128 kbyte ROM 4 kbyte RAM 16-bit CPU 16 MHz RS-232C RS-232C 9600 baud THBV3_0814JA

179 K P 1000 pf + THBV3_0815JA

180

181 THBV3_0901JA

182 THBV3_0902JA

183 M4 M16 M64 L16 L32 M THBV3_0903JA THBV3_0904JA

184 THBV3_0905JA THBV3_0906JA

185 THBV3_0907JA THBV3_0908JA

186 THBV3_0909JA OUTPUT DEVIATION (%) SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND CROSS-TALK SCAN DEAD SPACE B EFFECTIVE SPACE SIGNAL A 1 CH SCAN POSITION (TOP VIEW) 16 CH SUPPLY VOL.: -800 V LIGHT SOURCE: TUNGSTEN LAMP SPOT DIA.: 100 µm SCAN PITCH: 50 µm POSITION (channel) CH CROSS-TALK AREA B / AREA A 100 CROSS-TALK RATIO (%) THBV3_0910JA

187 ch 2 ch 3 ch 4 ch 5 ch 6 ch 7 ch 8 ch 9 ch 10 ch 11 ch 12 ch 13 ch 14 ch 15 ch 16 ch THBV3_0911JA 100 OUTPUT DEVIATION (%) CHANNEL THBV3_0912JA

188 THBV3_0914JA

189 52.0 mm 32.2 mm 25.7 mm 25.7 mm 32.2 mm Effective Area 15 mm Effective Area 22 mm Effective Area 24 mm 49 mm THBV3_0915JA

190 THBV3_0916JA THBV3_0917JA

191 THBV3_0918JA THBV3_0919JA

192 X = X2 X1 + X2 Y = Y2 Y1 + Y2 THBV3_0920JA

193 THBV3_0921JA THBV3_0922JA

194 THBV3_0923JA

195 THBV3_0925JA

196 X9 X10 THBV3_0927JA Y8 Y9 THBV3_0928JA

197 THBV3_0929JA THBV3_0930JA

198 THBV3_0931JA

199

200

201 THBV3_1001JA

202 THBV3_1002JA

203 12 MΩ 24 MΩ 6 MΩ 1000 pf 1000 pf 900 pf THBV3_1004JA

204 THBV3_1005JA

205 THBV3_1006JA

206 THBV3_1007JAa THBV3_1007JAb THBV3_1008JAa THBV3_1008JAb

207 µ µ µ THBV3_1009JA

208 THBV3_1010JA

209 S-25 (s -1 ) S ( C) THBV3_1011JA

210 THBV3_1012JAa

211 THBV3_1012JAb THBV3_1013JAa

212 THBV3_1013JAb

213 THBV3_1014JA THBV3_1015JA

214 THBV3_1016JA

215 THBV3_1017JAa THBV3_1017JAb

216 MCP THBV3_1018JAa MCP SMA-R 100 kω 450 pf 330 pf 33 kω 12 MΩ 24 MΩ 6 MΩ 330 pf 330 pf 1000 pf 1000 pf 330 pf 50 Ω GND 10 kω GND -HV SHV-R SMA-R THBV3_1018JAb

217 THBV3_1019JA THBV3_1020JA

218 THBV3_1021JA

219 THBV3_1022JAa THBV3_1022JAb

220 THBV3_1022JAc

221

222

223 THBV3_1101JA Vth THBV3_1102JA

224 Gb = (Vpc-Vth) 3.6 G = Gb Gt

225 10 4

226 THBV3_1103JA

227 THBV3_1104JA α α σ THBV3_1105JA

228 Ω THBV3_1106JA

229 THBV3_1107JA

230 µ THBV3_1108JA µ THBV3_1109JA

231 C THBV3_1110JA

232 C THBV3_1111JA Ω Ω µ THBV3_1112JA

233 Ω Ω THBV3_1113JA

234

235

236 THBV3_1203JA

237 THBV3_1204JA THBV3_1205JA

238 (V) THBV3_1206JA THBV3_1207JA

239 THBV3_1208JA THBV3_1209JA

240 µ= A E bb kn Ebb k n (V) THBV3_1210JA

241 THBV3_1211JA THBV3_1212JA

242 THBV3_1213JA THBV3_1214JA

243 Ω µ THBV3_1215JA

244 THBV3_1216JA

245

246

247 THBV3_1301JA

248 C THBV3_1302JA

249 C) THBV3_1303JA

250 (na) ( C) THBV3_1304JA 500 = 1500 V =1 µa (%) C (R1288A-14) 25 C 175 C 90 C 150 C (hours) THBV3_1305JB

251 C) THBV3_1306JA C C THBV3_1307JA

252

253 THBV3_1308JA

254 THBV3_1309JA THBV3_1310JAa

255 THBV3_1310JAb

256

257 THBV3_1311JA

258 THBV3_1312JAa THBV3_1312JAb

259 THBV3_1312JAc

260 THBV3_1313JA

261 THBV3_1314JA

262

263 THBV3_1315JAa THBV3_1315JAb

264 THBV3_1316JAa THBV3_1316JAb

265 THBV3_1317JAa THBV3_1317JAb

266 THBV3_1318JA

267

268 THBV3_1319JAa THBV3_1319JAb

269 Ω THBV3_1320JA

270 THBV3_1321JA THBV3_1322JA

271 x + σ x x - σ µ C THBV3_1323JA

272 C µ THBV3_1324JA µ µ µ ± µ µ µ THBV3_1325JA

273 ± ± THBV3_1326JA

274

275 R(t) = e -tλ t: λ λ

276

277

278

279 THBV3_1401JA ''' ' ' '' ' '' '

280 THBV3_1402JA THBV3_1403JA

281 THBV3_1404JA THBV3_1405JA

282 THBV3_1406JA THBV3_1407JA

283

284

285 THBV3_1411JA

286 THBV3_1413JA THBV3_1414JA

287 γ

288 THBV3_1415JA THBV3_1416JA

289 THBV3_1417JA

290

291 THBV3_1418JA

292 β β γ γ γ β γ

293 THBV3_1419JA TPMHC0000JA_HB

294 PMT THBV3_1421JA

295 THBV3_1422JA

296 THBV3_1423JA

297 THBV3_1424JA THBV3_1425JA

298 THBV3_1426JA

299 THBV3_1427JA THBV3_1428JA

300 THBV3_1429JA THBV3_1430JA

301

302

303 150 C 200 C THBV3_1433JA

304 THBV3_1434JA

305 THBV3_1435JA THBV3_1436JA

306 THBV3_1437JA

307 THBV3_1438JA

308 THBV3_1439JA

309 (-µρt) THBV3_1440JA THBV3_1441JA I = -I 0 e (-µρt) ρ µ

310 THBV3_1442JA

311 THBV3_1443JA

312 THBV3_1444JA THBV3_1445JA

313

314 THBV3_1447JA

315 THBV3_1448JA

316 THBV3_1449JA

317

318

319

320

321

322

323

324

325

326

Γ Ec Γ V BIAS THBV3_0401JA THBV3_0402JAa THBV3_0402JAb 1000 800 600 400 50 % 25 % 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 10 % 2.5 % 0.5 % 0.25 % 2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 14001600

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1 (Berry,1975) 2-6 p (S πr 2 )p πr 2 p 2πRγ p p = 2γ R (2.5).1-1 : : : : ( ).2 α, β α, β () X S = X X α X β (.1) 1 2

1 (Berry,1975) 2-6 p (S πr 2 )p πr 2 p 2πRγ p p = 2γ R (2.5).1-1 : : : : ( ).2 α, β α, β () X S = X X α X β (.1) 1 2 2005 9/8-11 2 2.2 ( 2-5) γ ( ) γ cos θ 2πr πρhr 2 g h = 2γ cos θ ρgr (2.1) γ = ρgrh (2.2) 2 cos θ θ cos θ = 1 (2.2) γ = 1 ρgrh (2.) 2 2. p p ρgh p ( ) p p = p ρgh (2.) h p p = 2γ r 1 1 (Berry,1975) 2-6

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. ev=,604k m 3 Debye ɛ 0 kt e λ D = n e n e Ze 4 ln Λ ν ei = 5.6π / ɛ 0 m/ e kt e /3 ν ei v e H + +e H ev Saha x x = 3/ πme kt g i g e n

. ev=,604k m 3 Debye ɛ 0 kt e λ D = n e n e Ze 4 ln Λ ν ei = 5.6π / ɛ 0 m/ e kt e /3 ν ei v e H + +e H ev Saha x x = 3/ πme kt g i g e n 003...............................3 Debye................. 3.4................ 3 3 3 3. Larmor Cyclotron... 3 3................ 4 3.3.......... 4 3.3............ 4 3.3...... 4 3.3.3............ 5 3.4.........

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微分積分 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます. このサンプルページの内容は, 初版 1 刷発行時のものです.

微分積分 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます.   このサンプルページの内容は, 初版 1 刷発行時のものです. 微分積分 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます. ttp://www.morikita.co.jp/books/mid/00571 このサンプルページの内容は, 初版 1 刷発行時のものです. i ii 014 10 iii [note] 1 3 iv 4 5 3 6 4 x 0 sin x x 1 5 6 z = f(x, y) 1 y = f(x)

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30

30 3 ............................................2 2...........................................2....................................2.2...................................2.3..............................

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( ) 7..-8..8.......................................................................... 4.................................... 3...................................... 3..3.................................. 4.3....................................

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