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4 Γ Ec Γ V BIAS THBV3_0401JA THBV3_0402JAa

5 THBV3_0402JAb % 25 % % 2.5 % 0.5 % 0.25 % % 1 % 0.1 % THBV3_0403JB

6 µ

7 100M 200S 200M 400K 400U 400S 401K 500K(S-20) 500U 500S 501K(S-25) 502K 700K(S-1) UV µ

8 THBV3_0404JA

9 THBV3_0405JA Sk = I K L P (A/W)

10 h c η (%) = Sk = λ e h: J s c: m s -1 e: C 1240 Sk 100 (%) λ

11 THBV3_0406JA THBV3_0407JA

12 THBV3_0408JA

13 THBV3_0409JA

14 THBV3_0410JA

15 THBV3_0411JA

16

17

18 THBV3_0412JA δ = a E k δ 1 = I d1 I K δ n = I dn I d(n-1) Ip = Ik α δ 1 δ 2 δ n Ip = α δ 1 δ 2 δ n Ik

19 µ = α δ 1 δ 2 δ n V µ = (a E k ) n = a n ( ) kn = A V kn n+1 THBV3_0413JA

20 THBV3_0414JA

21 THBV3_0415JA THBV3_0416JA

22 THBV3_0417JA THBV3_0418JA

23 FWHM FWTM THBV3_0419JA

24 THBV3_0420JA THBV3_0421JA

25 THBV3_0422JA C.R.T. = (τ 1 2 +τ 2 2 ) 1/2

26 C 1 µa 1 µa 0.1 µa 0.01 µa 10 µa 1 µa 0.1 µa 0.1 µa 0.1 µa

27 THBV3_0423JA

28 THBV3_0424JA (Ip 0 (Ip 1 +Ip 2 +Ip 3 +Ip 4 ) 1) 100 (%) Ip 0 = Ip 1 +Ip 2 +Ip 3 +Ip 4

29 R=100 kω THBV3_0425JA Ip 02 Ip 01 = 4 Ip 2 Ip 1 Ip 02 Ip 01 (Ip 2 Ip 1)-(Ip 02 Ip 01) (Ip 02 Ip 01) 100(%) (Ip 2 Ip 1 ) = (Ip 02 Ip 01 )

30 THBV3_0426JA THBV3_0427JA

31 THBV3_0428JAa THBV3_0428JAb

32 THBV3_0429JA

33 THBV3_0430JA THBV3_0431JA THBV3_0432JA

34 THBV3_0433JA

35 THBV3_0434JA

36 PMTR V 1 µa THBV3_0435JA

37 1 µa THBV3_0436JA H L = ((I MAX -I MIN ) Ii) 100 (%)

38 0.1 µa THBV3_0437JA H = ((I MAX I MIN) Ii) 100 (%)

39 THBV3_0438JA

40 i S = AT 5/4 e (-eψ/kt)

41 THBV3_0439JA

42 THBV3_0440JA

43 EADCI (lm) = (A) (A/lm)

44 THBV3_0441JA ENI = (2e Id µ B) 1/2 S (W) e: Id: µ: B: S:

45 THBV3_0442JA SN= I p i p+d SN I p i p F= (S/N) 2 in (S/N) 2 out

46 F= 1+1 δ 1 +1 δ 1 δ δ 1 δ 2 δ n F δ (δ-1) i p = µ(2 e I k α B F) 1/2 i p = µ{2 e I k α B(1+1 δ 1 +1 δ 1 δ δ 1 δ 2 δ n )} 1/2 I p = I k α µ SN = I p i p I = ( K α 1 ) 1/2 2eB 1+1 δ 1 +1 δ 1 δ δ 1 δ 2 δ n I SN K 1 ( ) 1/2 2eB δ (δ-1) SN= (I k 2eB) 1/ I k (µa) B (MHz)

47 SN= I k (2eB δ (δ-1) (I k +2I d )+N 2 A) 1/2 I SN= k (2eB δ (δ-1) (I k+2i d)) 1/2 η I k : λ: c: P: δ: I d : e: h: η: B: N A :

48 SN= I k = (2 e (I k +2 I d )F B) 1/2 I k µ (2e(I ph +2I d )FB µ 2 ) 1/2 = I p 2e(I p +2I da )µfb = S p P i 2e(S p Pi+2I da )µfb S p Pi= 2e(S p Pi+2I da )µfb (S p Pi) 2 2e(S p Pi+2I da )µfb= 0 S p Pi= ( 2eSpµFB) ± ( 2eSpµFB)2 4Sp 2 ( 4eIdaµFB) 2Sp 2 eµfb Pi= + Sp (eµfb) 2 + 4eIdaµFB Sp A/W A/W ENI THBV3_0444JA

49

50 THBV3_0445JA I I Iθ = I S cos 2 θ+i P sin 2 θ = (I P +I S )(1 P I S cos 2 θ) 2 I P +I S I S : I P : I I O = P+I S, P = 2 I P I S I P+I S θ = I O (1 P cos 2 θ)

51 THBV3_0446JA THBV3_0447JA

52 THBV3_0448JA

53

54

= hυ = h c λ υ λ (ev) = 1240 λ W=NE = Nhc λ W= N 2 10-16 λ / / Φe = dqe dt J/s Φ = km Φe(λ)v(λ)dλ THBV3_0101JA Qe = Φedt (W s) Q = Φdt lm s Ee = dφe ds E = dφ ds Φ Φ THBV3_0102JA Me = dφe ds M = dφ ds

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1 016 017 6 16 1 1 5 1.1............................................... 5 1................................................... 5 1.3................................................ 5 1.4...............................................

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