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1 Bransford, Barclay, & Franks, 1972; Mani & Johnson-Laird, Kintsch, Welsch, Schmalhofer, & Zimny, 1990

2 16 Kintsch, 1988; Kintsch, 1998; van Dijk & Kintsch, Glenberg, Meyer, and Lindem time space causation intentionality protagonist Zwaan & Radvansky, Glenberg, Meyer, and Lindem Glenberg, Meyer, and Lindem 1987

3 17 Haenggi, Kintsch, and Gernsbacher 1995 Morrow, Bower, and Greenspan 1989 Morrow, Greenspan, and Bower 1987 Morrow Kintsch & van Dijk, 1978; Sanford & Garrod, 1981 Morrow, Greenspan, and Bower 1987 Glenberg, Meyer, and Lindem short-term memory 1

4 18 long-term memory Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1971 Baddeley Baddeley Baddeley, visual cache inner scribe phonological short-term store articulatory rehearsal 2 Figure 1 Figure 1 Gathercole & Baddeley, 1993

5 19 Figure 2 Baddeley 2000 Baddeley, 2000 Baddeley, 1996 Figure Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan, 1975 Levy 1977 Slowiaczek and Clifton Daneman and Newson ,

6 20 Haber & Haber,

7 21 2 Morrow, Greenspan, & Bower, 1987 Kintsch, Haenggi, Kintsch, and Gernsbacher Morrow, Bower, and Greenspan

8 22 Table Table 1 Haenggi, Kintsch, and Gernsbacher Morrow, Bower, and Greenspan A cm 4 4 Figure 3

9 23 Figure Table

10 24 Table 2 Table 3 3 A 3 B 3 C 3 D Table A ms IBI inter-beat-interval 200 ms

11 ms IBI ms IBI 2 A 4 Figure Windows XP 3.5 A ms Table

12 26 B Table 4 Table Table 5 Table

13 27 Table Cooper & Shepard, 1973; Singer, Table 1 Coltheart 1978, 1980 Baddeley 1986 Caplan and Waters 1990 Martin

14 28 Table Graesser, Millis, & Zwaan, 1997 Graesser, Millis, & Zwaan, 1997 Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M The control of short-term memory. Scientific American, 225, Baddeley, A. D Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Baddeley, A. D Exploring central executive. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 528. Baddeley, A. D The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, Baddeley, A. D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M Word length and structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14,

15 29 Bransford, J. D., Barclay, J. R., & Franks, J. J The abstraction of linguistic ideas. Cognitive Psychology, 2, Caplan, D., & Waters, G Short-term memory and language comprehension: A critical review of the neuropsychological literature. In G. Vallar, & T. Shallice Eds., Neuropsychological impairments of short-term memory pp Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Coltheart, M Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G. Underwood Ed., Strategies of information processing pp New York: Academic Press. Coltheart, M Reading, phonological recoding and deep dyslexia. In M. Coltheart, K. Patterson, & J. C. Marshal Eds., Deep Dyslexia pp London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Cooper, L. A., & Shepard, R. N Chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images. In W. Chase Ed., Visual information processing. New York: Academic Press. Daneman, M., & Newson, M Assessing the importance of subvocalization during normal silent reading, Reading and Writing, 4, Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D Working memory and language. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Graesser, A. G., Millis, K. K., & Zwaan, R. A Discourse comprehension. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, Glenberg, A. M., Meyer, M., & Lindem, K Mental models contribute to foregrounding during text comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, Haber, R. N., & Haber, L. R The shape of a word can specify its meaning. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, Haenggi, D., Kintsch, W., & Gernsbacher, M. A Spatial situation models and text comprehension. Discourse Processes, 19, / Kintsch, W The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction-integration model. Psychological Review, 95, Kintsch, W Text comprehension, memory, and learning. American Psychologist, 49, Kintsch, W Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kintsch, W., & van Dijk, T. A Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85, Kintsch, W., Welsch, D., Schmalhofer, F., & Zimny, S Sentence memory: A theoretical analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 29, Levy, B. A Reading: Speech and meaning processes. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16, Mani, K., & Johnson-Laird, P. N The mental representation of spatial descriptions. Memory and Cognition, 10, Martine, R Short-term memory and sentence processing: Evidence from neuropsychology. Memory and Cognition, 21, Morrow, D. G., Bower, G. H., & Greenspan, S. L Updating situation models during narrative

16 30 comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, Morrow, D. G., Greenspan, S. L., & Bower, G. H Accessibility and situation models in narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, Sanford, A. J., & Garrod, S. C Understanding written language. Chichester: John Wiley. Singer, M Psychology of language: An introduction to sentence and discourse processes. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Association. Slowiaczek, M. L., & Clifton, C Subvocalization and reading for meaning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, van Dijk, T. A., & Kintsch, W Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic Press. Zwaan, R. A., & Radvansky, G. A Situation models in language comprehension memory. Psychological Bulletin, 123,

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