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1 Doctoral Thesis An interactive system which can build an sustained relationship between users and artifacts by Nagisa Munekata Graduate school of Systems Information Science Future University - Hakodate March 2008

2 Abstract Recently, many researchers have developed various interactive systems in the fields of the entertainment contents and the virtual reality. The general purpose of these systems is to realize a sustained interaction between users and these systems. Here, the term sustained interaction would include the relationship between a pet animal and its owner; in this relationship, most owners do not always play with pet animal actively and they do not think about their pet even for a moment. In this situation, the owners regard their pet animals as a part of their own lives. This phenomenon is similar with the air for our everyday life because we are not thinking about the air in our everyday life, but we already know that the air is indispensable for our daily lives. Therefore, the sustained interaction can be formed by the user s motivations relying on their conveniences. However, it can be said that most current interactive systems have not considered the user s habituation; once most users experienced the system, they usually get bored with the interaction with those systems. And they eventually loose their motivation for interacting with the system. Here, it can be said that it would be strongly required in keeping user s motivations to make sustained interaction between users and systems. At first, I conducted psychological experiments to investigate when users interacting with the system would raise their motivations or loose these. Specifically, the users biological signals were measured to investigate their excitements in the situation of their playing the video game which are based on the biofeedback technique. As a biological signal in this study, I focused on the Skin Conductance Response (SCR) to comprehend the user s motivation objectively. In general, it is said that the SCR reveals the user s internal excitements. As the results, I could revealed the two appropriate design strategy for the entertainment contents which can make user s excitement effectively; one is that the video game should reflect user s excitements on the certain game contents in real time, and the second is that the the game event reflected the user s biological signal should be understood by the users as the game event was relating with my behaviors!. Second, I developed of the other video game using biofeedback technique as an entertainment contents, and investigated the user s subjective impressions of this video game and the relationship between their impressions and the user s excitements acquired from the user s SCR value. As the results, the higher SCR values indicated the users positive subjective impression, such as they enjoyed playing this game and they had an emotional attachment for the game character. In general, the user s motivations would be up to the personal preferences. However, in this experimental setting, the users motivations were up to whether they had an emotional attachment for the character or not, and this would affect to realize a sustained interaction between users and the video game system. Based on the results of the two previous studies, I developed an interface system utilizing a stuffed animal like robot to realize a sustained interaction and conducted psychological experiments to investigate the effectiveness of this interface system whether the users could feel that this interface system was enjoyable or not. The results showed that users who had an emotional attachment for interface regarded this robot as an independent character having some emotions. In case that the user regarded this robot as my companion, these users had strong emotional attachments for the interface system. Therefore, it can be said that this interface system could realize a sustained interaction between users and the interface system. However, I could observe that the personal preference would affect the user s emotional attachments on this system. Therefore, I am planning to investigate the effects of personal preference on emotional aspects when the participants actually interact with the interface system. I strongly believe that this consecutive study would conclude my doctor thesis to develop an interactive system which can build an intimate relationship between users and artifacts.

3 Keywords: internal excitement. motivation. emotional attachment. sustained interaction. 3

4 :

5 BF BF BF BF

6 CG :

7 BF BF BF BF BF BF BF BF i

8 ii

9 1 [4] [11] [7, 26] [18, 19, 72] [70] 1

10 [38] ( )

11 8 3

12 Bowlby[5] Bowlby Harlow [22, 23] Harlow 4

13 [10] [5] [42] [14] [39] [32] [9] [65] [57] 5

14 CG [59] CG CG [30] [60] [31] AIBO [18] [38] [41] CG 2.2 Skin Conductance Response SCR, [68], 6

15 2.1: CG 2.2: CG 7

16 SCR [45, 15] [46], [33] [6] [21] [58] 2.3 Human Agent Interaction HAI [69] [4] [11] 8

17 AIBO[17] KISMET[7] Robovie[26] WAKAMARU[72] [36, 71] [2] [12, 37] [3, 27] [35, 34] [70] HAI [8] [49] 9

18 2.4 [73, 74] wii [75] EyeToy USB Camera[76] [62, 63] [25, 50] Nintendo DS [47] DS Nintendo DS [51, 52] RUI (Robotics User Interface) [55, 48] [29, 61, 40] CG 10

19 2.3: AIBO 2.4: kismet 11

20 2.5: Robovie 2.6: WAKAMARU 12

21 RUI

22 14

23 Balloon Trip[43] Skin Conductance Response SCR SCR 1 Balloon Trip SCR A/D PC PC 5 SCR / 15

24 SCR 1 SCR 2 SCR / 2 SCR A/D PC PC PC SCR SCR 2 16

25 SCR 2 PC CG 17

26 4 1 Balloon Trip 2 Skin Conductance Response SCR SCR / SCR 1 SCR 2 SCR 4.1 Skin Conductance Response SCR SCR [15] Fowles [16] [44]

27 - [24] SCR SCR [13] SCR 1 2 SCR SCR 4.1 SCR [53, 54] 4.1 SCR (SCR ) SCR SCR SCR [20] SCR [66] 19

28 SCR (mv) times 4.1: SCR ( ) Figure 4.1: SCR values 4.2: SCR Figure 4.2: The circuit diagram of SCR sensor 20

29 Figure 4.3: 4.3: The electrodes attached to palm 21

30 Balloon Trip SCR SCR Balloon Trip SCR BF SCR Balloon Trip SCR SCR BF Balloon Trip SCR PC SCR SCR [53] Balloon Trip PC PC Balloon Trip SCR CG SCR SCR SCR (8bit)

31 4.4: Figure 4.4: Screen configuration of game (nomal situation) 4.5: SCR Figure 4.5: Screen configuration of game (agitated situation) 23

32 4.6: BF Figure 4.6: Screenshot of BF effect in experiment BF BF Balloon Trip BF BF SCR SCR SCR BF BF 24

33 4.2.3 BF BF SCR SCR (F (1, 22) = 3.44,p<.1(+)) Balloon Trip SCR Balloon Trip SCR BF BF SCR SCR Balloon Trip SCR BF BF SCR 4 8 (F (2, 54) = 14.20,p<.01( )) LSD 1) 4 2) 8 3) 4 8 BF BF 25

34 4.7: BF Figure 4.7: Result of BF effect in experiment 4.8: BF SCR Figure 4.8: Result of SCR values in experiment of BF delay 26

35 BF SCR BF SCR 4 8 SCR SCR SCR Balloon Trip 27

36 Skin Conductance Response SCR / SCR BF SCR BF SCR PC SCR SCR [53] SCR A SCR SCR B 28

37 SCR B ( ) ( ) SCR A SCR B SCR

38 (A) (B) 4.9: A B SCR Figure 4.9: Screen configuratuin of game and robot motion(a: nomal situation, B: agitated situation) 30

39 4.3.2 BF BF (Session A) (SessionB) Session Session Session A Group A Session B Group B Session Group A 1st turn (Session A Session B) 2nd turn (A B) 3rd turn (A B) Group B 1st turn (Session B Session A) 2nd turn (B A) 3rd turn (B A) BF Session SCR Group A B Group A SCR (Session A Session B) SCR 2 Session Session SCR Session SCR Group A B SCR Session B Session A SCR BF PC 31

40 1000 SCR values A B A B A B trials 4.10: Session SCR (Group A) Figure 4.10: Number of trials and SCR values relation (Group A) 1000 SCR values B A B trials A B A 4.11: Session SCR (Group B) Figure 4.11: Number of trials and SCR values relation (Group B) 32

41 SCR values Session A Session B 0 1st turn 2nd turn 3rd turn 4.12: BF Session A Session B SCR Figure 4.12: SCR values comparison of Session A with Session B in experiment of BF robot motion 33

42 4.3.4 BF BF BF Group A Session A Session B 3 BF Session Group C BF Group C Session A Session B SCR Session A Session B SCR Group A Group B SCR BF Session B Session A SCR SCR PC SCR SCR values Session A Session B 0 1st turn 2nd turn 3rd turn 4.13: BF Session A Session B SCR Figure 4.13: SCR values comparison of Session A with Session B in experiment of BF robot attachment 34

43 BF Session A Session B SCR SCR Group C Group C 4.14: Group C Figure 4.14: Paticipants in Group C 35

44 BF BF BF BF 36

45 SCR 37

46 PC PC ( 5.2) [56] (IP ROBOT PHONE [28] ) ( 5.2) 38

47 ROBOT PC 5.1: Figure 5.1: System configuration of Marching Bear 5.2: Figure 5.2: Display configuration of Marching Bear 39

48 1 2 PC 2D 3D VR [64] 5.2 X 10 Degree 5-5 -( /2) (Y ) 30 Y 30 40

49 FRONT SIDE TOP : IP ROBOT PHONE Figure 5.3: Degree of Freedom of Marching Bear 41

50 6 normal controller normal fur machine video Bowlby emotinal bond [5] Bowlby 42

51 6.1: normal Figure 6.1: Experimental scene of normal group

52 Figure 6.2: 6.2: The Marching Bear controller used in group of normal 46 inch (WXGA, pixel) 15 cm 5cm ( ) normal 5 5 ( 6.2) controller [67]

53 6.3: controller Figure 6.3: The video game controller used in group of controller normal controller ( ) 11 Q1 Q3 Q4 Q2 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q10 Q9 Q11 Q1 Q3 Q4 45

54 6.4: Figure 6.4: Questionnaire 46

55 Q2 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q10 Q9 Q normal normal controller 10 controller normal controller 47

56 6.5: Figure 6.5: Questionnaire and its result normal normal controller normal controller Q1 Q2 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 48

57 Q1 Q3 Q4 3 Q1 [normal :1.9 controller 4.2 (F (1, 18) = ,p <.01( ))] normal controller controller normal Q2 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q10 Q2 [normal :3.3 controller :2.5 (F (1, 18) = 5.43,p<.05( ))] Q8 [normal: 4.4 controller :3.4 (F (1, 18) = 13.24,p<.01( ))] normal controller normal controller controller

58 controller normal controller normal Q8 normal normal normal Q9 Q11 2 normal controller Q9 [normal :4.1 controller :2.8 (F (1, 18) = 10.49,p<.01( ))] Q11 [normal :3.7 controller :3.0 (F (1, 18) = 5.44,p<.05( ))] normal controller normal normal controller normal 50

59 controller 51

60 normal controller inch (WXGA, pixel) 15 cm 5cm ( ) fur 5 5 ( 6.4.3) machine 8 3 ( 6.4.3) 52

61 6.6: fur Figure 6.6: The controller used in the group of fur 6.7: machine Figure 6.7: The controller used in the machine group 53

62 6.4.3 fur machine

63 6.8: machine Figure 6.8: Experimental scene of machine group fur CG fur normal fur fur normal machine

64 1 5 machine 11 5 normal machine machine fur normal fur normal machine normal fur normal fur normal fur Q4 [normal :1.9 fur 3.0 (F (1, 18) = 7.31,p <.05( ))] Q5 [normal :2.9 fur 2.1 (F (1, 18) = 3.24,p<.1(+))] Q4 normal fur fur normal fur fur normal 56

65 Figure 6.9: 6.9: normal fur The results of questionnaire comparison of normal group with fur group Figure 6.10: 6.10: normal machine The results of questionnaire comparison of normal group with machine group 57

66 Q5 fur normal normal fur normal machine normal machine normal machine Q8 [normal :4.4 fur 3.4 (F (1, 19) = 12.48,p<.01( ))] Q9 [normal :4.1 fur 3.1 (F (1, 19) = 5.07,p<.05( ))] Q10 [normal :3.0 fur 2.0 (F (1, 19) = 3.06,p<.1(+))] Q11 [normal :3.7 fur 2.5 (F (1, 18) = 8.95,p<.01( ))] machine normal fur machine normal fur normal normal normal normal fur machine 11 5 normal 58

67 video inch (WXGA, pixel) 15 cm 5cm ( ) video 59

68 6.6.3 video

69 6.11: normal video Figure 6.11: The results of questionnaire comparison of normal group with video teaching group video normal video normal video Q1 [normal :1.9 video :4.8 (F (1, 20) = ,p<.01( ))] Q4 [normal :3.1 video :4.2 (F (1, 20) = 14.49,p<.01( ))] Q6 [normal :2.8 video :3.6 (F (1, 20) = 4.61,p<.05( ))] Q7 [normal :4.1 video :4.7 61

70 (F (1, 20) = 6.29,p<.05( ))] Q1 Q3 Q4 3 Q1 [normal :1.9 video :4.8 (F (1, 20) = ,p<.01( ))] Q4 [normal :3.1 video :4.2 (F (1, 20)=14.49,p<.01( ))] normal video video normal Q2 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q10 Q6 [normal :2.8 video :3.6 (F (1, 20)=4.61,p<.05( ))] Q7 [normal :4.1 video :4.7 (F (1, 20) = 6.29,p<.05( ))] normal video Q6 normal 2.8 fur 2.5 machine 2.4 controller 2.3 video video 3.6 Q9 Q11 2 normal video Q9 [normal :4.1 video :4.4 (F (1, 20) = 1.11] Q11 [normal :3.7 video :4.1 (F (1, 20) = 1.73] normal video video normal 62

71 video normal normal video normal normal video normal video 63

72 normal controller normal controller controller controller normal normal VR 1 normal controller 1 64

73 normal fur machine fur normal normal fur normal normal fur fur fur normal machine 11 5 normal machine normal fur fur 65

74 machine machine 11 5 video normal video normal normal Q6 Q7 normal video normal video 66

75 normal controller controller controller fur machine fur normal machine fur machine fur normal machine fur fur normal fur 67

76 controller machine video normal video normal fur machine 68

77

78 7.2 controller machine

79 7.1: back Figure 7.1: Group of back 7.2 back controller controller video video normal 2 71

80 2 SCR normal video 10 controller controller 2 normal controller 72

81 [ ] CG CG CG 73

82 Ax[1] 7 SCR 2 1 [5] [8] [49]

83 8 75

84 BF BF BF BF 76

85 CG 77

86 78

87 79

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96 2.1 CG CG AIBO kismet Robovie WAKAMARU SCR ( ) SCR SCR BF BF BF SCR A B SCR Session SCR (Group A) Session SCR (Group B) BF Session A Session B SCR BF Session A Session B SCR Group C IP ROBOT PHONE normal controller fur machine

97 6.8 machine normal fur normal machine normal video back

Vol. 23 No. 4 Oct. 2006 37 2 Kitchen of the Future 1 Kitchen of the Future 1 1 Kitchen of the Future LCD [7], [8] (Kitchen of the Future ) WWW [7], [3

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