1) A Consideration of the Use of the Phrase Tsumaranaimonodesuga by Comparison of the Contents of Japanese Textbooks and the Results of Actual Surveys

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2 1) A Consideration of the Use of the Phrase Tsumaranaimonodesuga by Comparison of the Contents of Japanese Textbooks and the Results of Actual Surveys SEI Rumi This study aims to verify whether actual Japanese way of speaking is reflected in Japanese language textbooks, which are usually considered the model of speech and behavior for foreign students. Expression of understatement could be said to be typical aspect of Japanese speech patterns. In this study I focused on the expression tumaranaimonodesuga. Scenes involving the giving gifts were analyzed and collated from Japanese language textbooks and compared with the results of surveys held in Shizuoka Prefecture. Through this comparative study I verified the validity of the following three theories. First theory is that Japanese people actually use phrases expressing deference or humility when giving gifts. Second theory is that tsumaranaimonodesuga is one of the most typical phrases Japanese people use when giving gifts. Third theory is that the phrases introduced in Japanese language textbooks to describe scenes giving gifts are actually the phrases expressing humility that Japanese most often use. Comparative study showed that while the first theory was proven as valid, the second and third theories were not. : 17

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10 most commonly used ( 1992 p. 75) the most common expressions ( 1983p. 154) one of the most common expressions ( 1977p. 70) frequently used ( 1987p. 226) y (2) 6 2 y (3)

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14 Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ishii, S. (1984). Enryo-Sasshi Communication: A Key to Understanding Japanese Interpersonal Relations. Cross Currents, p. 2. [: ] (1987) An Introduction to Advanced Spoken Japanese. (1992) (1990) 100 (1990) (1984) (1997) 50 Jorden, E. H., & Noda, M. ( ) Japanese, the Spoken Language (Part 2). B. (1996) Interactive Japanese. (1992) Communicative Japanese for Time Pressed People. TOP (1993) (1992) Situational Functional Japanese. Nagatomo, K., & Stein, M. (1995). Do-it-yourself Japanese through Comics. (1990) Japanese for Everyone. (1983) A Course in Modern Japanese (2). (1987) (1989) (6) (1990) (1998) (1989) II (1983) II (1987) Basic Functional Japanese. McBride, H. (1991). Kimono (2). Australia: CIS Education. (1994) An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese. 29

15 15 (2003 ) (1977) An Introduction to Modern Japanese. (1987) How to be Polite in Japanese. Young, J., & Nakajima, O.K. (1985). Learn Japanese. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 30

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21 15 (2003 ) y y (1) ( ) 14 (2 ) () II (p. 143) ( 1983, 143 ) Japanese for Everyone (p.142) Guest host gift Japanese consider it good manners to speak of the thing being given in a deprecatory fashion ( 1990, p. 142) Situational Functional Japanese 3 (p.75) gift a formal situation most commonly used an expression of understatement. ( 1992, p. 75) (p.55)(p.93) An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese (p.184) gift The sprit of humbleness has always been valued in Japan. ( 1994, p. 184) A course in Modern Japanese 2 (p. 154) gift the most common expressions used when offering a gift... should be done modestly. ( 1983, p. 154) An Introduction gift frequently used when giving some- 36

22 to Advanced Spoken Japanese (p.226) one a figt... to express humbleness. ( 1987, p. 226) Basic Functional Japanese (p. 93) your friend present murmuring hesitantly ( 1987, p. 93) (p. 33) (TOP 1993, 33 ) Learn Japanese Vol. 3 (p.290) Japanese, the Spoken Language (Part 2) (p.138) the giver regularly belittles the value of the gift... (Jorden, 1987, p. 138) An Introduction to Modern Japanese (p. 70) one of the most common expressions when offering a gift ( 1977, p. 70) II (p.19) ( ) ( 1989, 19 ) (p. 92) ( 1990, 92 ) 37

23 15 (2003 ) y (2): 6 How to be Polite in Japanese (p. 43) Speak Japanese Naturally (p ) (p. 80) (p. 26) 100 (p. 206) belittling gifts Politeness requires the Japanese to make some statement belittling the gift they are offering to others... This attitude of depreciating oneself is considered to be polite... ( 1987, p. 43) an expression used when humbly offering someone to gift. ( 1997, pp ) ( 1998, 80 ) ( 1990, 26 ) ( 1990, 206 ) 2 3 ( 1992) 38

24 y (3): 7 Kimono (2) (p. 3) (McBride, 1991, 3 ) (6) (p. 8) ( 1989, 8 ) An Integrated Approach to Interediate Japanese (p.187) ( 1994, 187 ) (p. 6) (p. 27) ( 1984, 6 ) ( 27 ) Japanese through Comics (p. 74) () () (Nagatomo & Stein, 1995, p. 74) Interective Japanese (p. 120) ( 1996, 120 ) Communicative Japanese for Time Pressed People (p. 77) ( 1992, 77) 39

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