NINJAL Research Papers No.3

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1 (NINJAL Research Papers) 3: (2012) ISSN: X print/ online i ii iii Tsunoda forthcoming * 1. clause-linkage marker CLM Tsunoda forthcoming 2 3 CLM CLM *

2 144 3: (2012) CLM Tsunoda forthcoming CLM i ii iii 2007: : : : : : 518 -(y)oo : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 154

3 3: (2012) 145 CLM Narrog 2009 ¹ CLM CLM Tsunoda forthcoming I II III IV V Tsunoda forthcoming 2011 I I II I I I III I II ¹ Narrog 2009: subordinate mood -(y)oo

4 146 3: (2012) I II IV V CLM Tsunoda forthcoming 1 I 2 II 3 III 4 IV 5 V 1 I 2 1 II

5 3: (2012) III 4 IV 5 V I II III V IV 1996: 39 IV 6 I 7 I 8 II 9 II 10 III 11 * IV 12 V 2007: II III II

6 148 3: (2012) 8 II III III 13 * III * IV 14 IV 14 II * IV IV 12 V V III V 17 * V IV ² 1990: P Q P Q P Q P Q P Q ² V

7 3: (2012) 149 I II III IV V CLM : : 28 V 18 * I 19 * II 20 * III IV V 21 * IV 22 IV 23 * V 24 V IV V IV V 2004: 156, 210 i I III ii I III IV V i ii V I III IV V

8 150 3: (2012) P Q 1997: : 173 I II III IV V IV V 25 * I 26 * II 27 * III IV V 28 * IV 29 IV 30 * V 31 * V II III V IV V

9 3: (2012) 151 CLM 1 I II III IV V I ³ II III Tsunoda forthcoming IV V I I 33 * I I 35 I 2004: 56, 198 II III ³ 2004: 27, 56 I I

10 152 3: (2012) 1993: II 37 II 1990: III IV V 39 IV 40 IV 41 V 42 V i -(y)oo ii i ii I II III 2001: II III 1 IV V 43 I 44 I 45 II 46 II 47 * II

11 3: (2012) * II 49 * III 50? III 51 * IV 52 * V 2 I II III IV V 53 * * I 54 * II 55 * III 56 IV 57 IV 58 V 59 V I 1 I III 1 III IV V I I II III IV V 1 2

12 154 3: (2012) CLM CLM Tsunoda forthcoming IV 1 2 III B I II III IV V 64 I 65 II 66 III 67? * IV II III 1 2 III III 2011 Tsunoda forthcoming 5

13 3: (2012) ? * V 69 * V IV V : : : : IV CLM IV IV II IV 70? IV 71 * IV 72 * IV

14 156 3: (2012) 73 * IV 74 * IV 75 * IV IV II 76 II GP 77 II 78 II 79 II 80 II 81 II 82 II 83 II 1991: I II III

15 3: (2012) II IV CLM II 3 I II III IV V 4. CLM i ii iii CLM CLM 6 a b *

16 158 3: (2012) (10): : : : : : : : : : Narrog, Heiko (2009) Modality in Japanese[:] The layered structure of the clause and hierarchies of functional categories. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins : (10): I 1991 III : : Tsunoda, Mie (forthcoming) Five-level classification of clause-linkage in Japanese. Studies in Language.

17 3: (2012) CD-ROM, 1995, KOTONOHA GP Modality in Clause-linkage Markers TSUNODA Mie Project Collaborator, National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics [ ] Abstract Japanese has a few sets of clause-linkage markers ( CLMs ) such as the causal CLMs =kara, =nodakara and =monodakara in which each set consists of a morpheme and other compound forms that are created by adding one or more other elements to this morpheme. The present paper deals with the following three sets: (i) =kara, =monodakara, =nodakara, =karaniwa, (ii) =nara, =mononara, and (iii) =dake, =dakeni. In such sets of CLMs, adding an element or elements may create a modal meaning in the resultant forms. That is, the meanings of the compound forms become specialized. When this specialization takes place, the environments in which they can be used also become specialized. Specifically, in terms of the five levels of clause linkage (Tsunoda 2003, 2004, forthcoming), these environments become narrower and, furthermore, the distribution of the use of =monodakara, =mononara and =dakeni becomes discontinuous. This phenomenon is a nice illustration of markedness theory. Namely, those CLMs that are marked morphologically become marked semantically as well, and they are restricted to a narrower range of environments accordingly. That is, they become marked syntactically, too. Key words: =monodakara, =mononara, =dakeni, =karaniwa, markedness

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