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1 Effect of seed coating and pelleting with plant growth promoting rihzobacteria on germination and seedling growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) 4 3 * /11/9 : /12/28 : :(1) ) CFU ( ( ) ml CFU :1 7 * :

2 (Scott et al. 1984) ( ) (Lada et al. 2004) Sanguisorba minor (Krantev et al. 2008) (Tilak 1992) (Gholami et al ) (Cakmakci et al. 2009) (Gholami et al. 2012) / / (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) (Dewar et al. 1997)

3 /1 1 7 /32 / ) ( Azotobacter (Bacillus Pseudomonas RS (crococcum) lentus) (putida) OF (Azospirillum lipoferum) CFU ) (10 7 ml (Antunes et al. 2006) (Tilak et al. 1992) (Sayed Sharif and Khavazi 2010) (Mirshekari et al. 2013) (Ibrahim et al. 1990) (Gaur 2001) (Kennedy and Tychan 1999) (Rajab- Ali et al. 1999)

4 ( ) Seed Calculator (Don 2006) :(Abdul-Baki and Anderson 1973) = ( ) チ チ1 7 = (Polyvinylpyrrolidone= PVP) ( 10) ( ) (PVP) チ

5 /1 1 7 /32 / (1 ) (1 ) / / / SAS Excel

6 (Callan et al ) (1 ) ) ( (Zahir et al. 1998) ( ) (2 )

7 /1 1 7 /32 / (Arshad and Frankenberger 1991)

8 (Paul and Sarma 2006) (Banerjee et al. 2006) (Ahmad et al. 2005) (Hafeez et al. 2004) (Glick 1995) ( MSE) ns 4896 ns 7 ns 54 ns 2/2 ns 27 ns 14 ns 7/4 ns 0/15 ns 28 ns ns 143 ns 18 ns 1 ns 0/04 ns 102 ns 19 ns 1/5 ns 0/06 ns 11 ns ** * 431 ns 1331 * 50/0 ns 2378 ** 297 ns 175/2 ns 1/8 ns 350 ns ns 2000 ns 75 ns 71 ns 10/6 ns 104 ns 133 ns 47/0 ns 0/15 ns 29 ns チ / /0 1/ / /2 3/ /3 26/0 7/9 11/5 15/1 28/5 9/2 10/3 4/7 7/6 (CV) %. ns 1 70/ ** 1 70/ * チ10 5 CFU (3 ) (4 )

9 /1 1 7 /32 / (CFU Seed -1 ) /7 チ10 6 a 2/5 チ 10 4 b -4 1 チ10 g 1/6 チ 10 4 c 1 7 2/2 チ10 3 f -4 1 チ10 g 1/6 チ10 4 d 1/4 チ 10 4 e (p ワ0/05) (4 ) Warren and (Bennett 1999) /1 チ10 17 ** /74 チ10 14 ** 1 2 /38 チ10 14 ** 3 チ チ /04 () **

10 CFU OF (25000) RS CFU References: : 1 7 Abd El-Fattah DA, Eweda WE, Zayed MS, Hassanein MK. Effect of carrier materials, sterilization method, and storage temperature on survival and biological activities of Azotobacter chroococcum inoculant. Ann Agric Sci [Internet] Dec [cited 2014 Jun 11];58(2):111ィC8. Abd-el-Malek Y, Ishac YZ. Evaluation of Methods Used in Counting Azotobacters. J Appl Bacteriol. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 1963 Sep 1;31(3):267ィC75. AbdulィC Baki, A.A., and J.D., Anderson, Vigor determination in soybean by multiple criteria. Crop Sci., 13: Ahmad F, Ahmad I, Khan MS. Indole acetic acid production by the indigenous isolates of Azotobacter and fluorescent Pseudomonas in the presence and absence of tryptophan. Turk J Biol. 2005;29:29ィC34. Antunes PM, Deaville D, Goss MJ. Effect of two AMF life strategies on the tripartite symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and soybean. Mycorrhiza. Springer; 2006;16(3):167ィC73. Arshad M, Frankenberger Jr WT. Microbial production of plant hormones. Plant Soil. Springer; 1991;133(1):1ィC8. Banerjee MR, Yesmin L, Vessey JK, Rai MK, others. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers and biopesticides. Handb Microb biofertilizers. Food Products Press; 2006;137ィC81. Cakmacki, R, Kantar F, Sahin F. Effect of N2-fixing bacterial inoculations on yield of sugar beet and barley. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci. Wiley Online Library; 2009;164(5):527ィC31. Callan NW, Mathre DE, Miller JB. Field performance of sweet corn seed bio-primed and coated with Pseudomonas fluorescens AB254. HortScience. American Society for Horticultural Science; 1991;26(9):1163ィC5. Dewar AM, Westwood F, Bean KM, Haylock LA, Osborne R. The relationship between pellet size and the quantity of imidacloprid applied to sugar beet pellets and the consequences for seedling emergence. Crop Prot Mar;16(2):187ィC92. Don, R. ISTA handbook on seedling evaluation. International Seed Testing Association, Switzerland

11 /1 1 7 /32 / Gaur AC. Efect of Azotobacterization in presence of ertilzer Nitrogen in the yield of canola( Brasica napus L). Field experiment. Indian Society of Soil Science.2001;41: Gholami A, Biyari A, Gholipoor M, Asadi Rahmani H. Growth promotion of Maize (Zea mays L.) by plant-growthpromoting rhizobacteria under field conditions. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal. Taylor & Francis; 2012;43(9):1263ィC 72. Gholami A, Shahsavani S, Nezarat S. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on germination, seedling growth and yield of maize. Int. J. Biol. Life Sci. Citeseer; 2009;1(1):35ィC40. Glick BR. The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol. NRC Research Press; 1995;41(2):109ィC17. Hafeez FY, Safdar ME, Chaudhry AU, Malik KA. Rhizobial inoculation improves seedling emergence, nutrient uptake and growth of cotton. Anim Prod Sci. CSIRO; 2004;44(6):617ィC22. Ibrahim MA, Campbell WF, Rupp LA, Allen EB. Effects of mycorrhizae on sorghum growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance under drought conditions. Arid L Res Manag. Taylor & Francis; 1990;4(2):99ィC107. Kennedy IR, Tchan Y-T. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-leguminous field crops: Recent advances. Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Sustainable Agriculture. Springer; p. 93ィC118. Krantev A, Yordanova R, Janda T, Szalai G, Popova L. Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants. J Plant Physiol. Elsevier; 2008;165(9):920ィC31. Lada R, Stiles A, Surette MA, Sturz AV, Blake TJ, Caldwell C, et al., Stand establishment technologies for processing carrots. Acta Hortic. ISHS; 1999; 2004;105ィC16. Mirshekari B, Roudsari AM. Bio-nutrient seed priming may improve growth and essential oil yield of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Int J Biosci. Shamokal Publications; 2013;3(6):32ィC7. Paul D, Sarma YR. Antagonistic effects of metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on the different growth phases of Phytophthora capsici, foot rot pathogen of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot. Taylor & Francis; 2006;39(02):113ィC8. Rajab- Ali j, Zadeh A, A., Nouhi A, Salehi, M, Khavazy K., Brotherhood Sepahi AS.The effect of additives in the formulation of biofertilizers on the germination of cotton. Journal of Microbiology,1999; 3: Renaut J, Lutts S, Hoffmann L, Hausman J-F. Responses of poplar to chilling temperatures: proteomic and physiological aspects. Plant Biol. Wiley Online Library; 2004;6(1):81ィC90. Sayed- Sharif R, Khavazi k. Effect of plant growth promoting bacteria on germination and seedling growth of corn components, Agroecology, 2010; 4 (3):

12 Scott SJ, Jones RA, Williams WA. Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop Science Society of America; 1984;24(6):1192ィC9. Tilak K, Singh CS, Roy NK, Subba Rao NS. Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter chrococcum inoculum effect on maize and sorghum. Soil Biol Biochem. 1992;14:417ィC8. Warren JE, Bennett MA. Bio-osmopriming tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds for improved stand establishment. Seed Sci Technol. International Seed Testing Association; 1999;27(2):489ィC99. Zahir ZA, Asghar HN, Akhtar MJ, Arshad M. Precursor (L-tryptophan)-inoculum (Azotobacter) interaction for improving yields and nitrogen uptake of maize. J Plant Nutr. Taylor & Francis; 2005;28(5):805ィC17.

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