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1 A phonological analysis of a singing activity in an elementary-school English activity class Azusa, WADA The purpose of this paper is to describe the English phonological awareness that elementary school children might gain by singing English songs in foreign language activity classes. In this study, the author had investigated whether speech accents and rhythms were reflected in musical accents and rhythms. As a result of the investigation, it was observed that stressed syllables were likely to be matched with the higher and longer musical notes. This analysis leads to the conclusion that utilizing songs can be one of the effective resources for teaching English syllables, accents, and rhythms. The discourse analysis showed that some children described these phonological items in their own words during and after the singing activity, but at the same time, their descriptions were ambiguous. The teacher of this class did not pay attention to the difference between the linguistic definition of the term rhythm and the musicological one. Consequently, it might have led to their vague responses. Thus, it is important for elementary school teachers to construe children s intuitive utterances and descriptions by utilizing some fundamental pieces of knowledge of English phonology. It would enable teachers to have their children become more conscious of the phonological difference between Japanese and English. a p. b p.

2 Sposet p. ibid., p. Graham Jazz Chants Jazz Chants Jazz Chants p. Graham Murphey LAD Murphey,, p. Engh p.twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star p. p.

3 Clementine ibid., pp.- p. SONG SPEECH SONG ibid., p. Allen p. ( ) Swain ( )

4 Cs ALT ALT Misty Moon CMMariah Carey Misty Moon

5 in evening /ning/ above / / /b v/ / / above / / caresses /res/ /es/ eyes the be at /t/ evening gazing /n/ /g/

6 / / gently /e/ /t/ /f/ /the/ I see fields of golden flowers, shine in the evening sun.

7 in the evening sun ibid. p. p. mountains /máuntn/ Cs in the evening sun eveningevening Cs in the evening sun Cs

8

9 fields ALT

10 p.

11 SPEECH SONG 37 pp.-. D... Abercrombie, D. ( ). Problems and Principles in Language Study. London: Longmans Green and Co., Ltd. Allen, G.D. ( ). Speech rhythm: its relation to performance universals and auditory timing. Journal of Phonetics, 3: pp.-. Engh, D. ( ). Why use music in English language learning? A survey of the literature. English Language Teaching, 6( ): pp.-.. ( ): pp. -. Graham, C. ( ). Jazz Chants. New York: Oxford University Press pp.-. a. b. Murphey, T. ( ). The song stuck in my head phenomenon. System, ( ): pp. -. Murphey, T. ( ). Music & Song. New York: Oxford University Press. 14 pp pp.-. Jazz Chants. pp.-. 21( ) pp.-. Sposet, B. ( ). The Role of Music in Second Language Aquisition: A Biliographical Review of Seventy Years of Research, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. Swain, M. ( ). Three functions of output in second language learning. G. Cook & Seidlhofer, B. (Eds.), Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, pp pp pp pp.-. pp.-. So Beautiful.. < Misty Moon Mariah Carey.TVCM

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