1,000m 2650 t-co2 1,0001,500m 1948 t-co2 867

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1 (CO2) IPCC WG

2 1,000m 2650 t-co2 1,0001,500m 1948 t-co2 867

3 1,400m t-co2 9501,400m t-co

4 ,9005,200 t-co2 100 t-co2/

5 () NEDO 18 CO2 71 t-co2/ 4.7MPa 60md 38.2m CO cP CO g/cm3 II Injectivity Index II=710,000/4.7/365=414 t-co2//mpa () II 3 4 q k jh II = = P e w P r cµ ln 0.75 rw kj h CO2 2 CO2 CO2 20% 3,300m ERD 1.09MPa 100md 50m 870

6 CO cP CO g/cm 3 27 t-co2// 4,000m ERD 1.48MPa 30md 122m CO cP CO g/cm 3 26 t-co2// 1 1 5,500m ERD 3.06MPa 100md 50m CO cP CO g/cm 3 76 t-co2// 2 2 7,200m ERD 2.67MPa 100md 50m CO cP CO g/cm 3 66 t-co2// 100 t-co2/ t-co2/ t-co2/ t-co2//

7 100 t-co t-co2/ t/ 100 t/

8

9

10 (MPa) t-co2/ 875

11 16 2) ,100 t-co2 CO2 3) 100 t-co2 10 1,000 t-co ) ,000 t-co2 40%1/ % t , , ? 5,500? 1EfAhSgBgCO2EfAh(1Sg)RsCO2 Ef 0.5AhSg CO2 0.2BgCO2CO2 RsCO2CO2 2SfAhSg/BgCO2 Sf 0.5AhSg 0.5 BgCO2CO CO t/m 3 876

12 ,000 t-co2 180ksc=17.7MPa 75 1,200mSSLsub-sea level 70m Ct = psi (= Cf + Sw Cw + Sg CCO2) Cf () = psi Cw () = 3 10 psi CCO2 () = psi Sw () = 0.8 Sg () = CO2 21md CO2-1 65md 877

13 md 32md 100 t-co2 PI q PI ( stb / d / psi) = P qstb kh = r e B µ ln s rw PPs Pwfpsi B cp, kmd hft reft, rwft s IICO2t-CO2/dksc k eff _ CO2 = II CO2 ρ CO2 r µ CO 2 ln r h IICO2CO2 t-co2/dksc CO2CO2 g/cc e w s 23 t-co2/dksc

14 1.3-5 (md) CO2 (md) 2 t-co2/dksc 3 t-co2/dksc CO Min. 2.2 Max. 3.3 Max Min Max psi/ft=1.6ksc/m 190kscg=18.6MPaG 190kscg 16 98kscg(=9.6MPaG) 1,200m 180kscg 116kscg(=11.4MPaG) 500m1,000m1,5002,000m m 67 t-co21,000m 92 t-co21,500m 110 t-co22,000m 128 t-co ,200m 10 1,000 t-co2 100 t-co2 1,200m 600m t-co t-co (2) 879

15 SPmV ILDm DTsft 1,060m 1,450m 50m (-16) 880

16 N S W E ,000 CO CO2 881

17 1,000 1,200m

18 10 1,000 t-co2/ t-co2/ 100 t-co2/ / 2530% t-co2/co t-co2/ 1040 t-co2/ 100 t-co2/ 9.4m t-co2/ 883

19 7MPa 600A 300 t-co2/ 10 t-co2/ 100 t-co2/ t/lng 12 t/ 100 t-co2/ 500km 1.1 t/ 1) () 18 CO2 2) ) ()CO

20 237 t-co22001 IEA CO2 82 t-co2 SRCCS 35% ,900 t-co t-co2 31.8% 60%(2004 ) t-co t-co kg- CO2/kWh 0.421kg- CO2/kWh HP % 44% 37% 33%2002 NPO 1,000 t % 885

21 Flue Gas Outlet CO 2 Purity : 99.9 % ABSORBER STRIPPER C.W. Flue Gas Cooler Flue Gas C.W. C.W. Reboiler Steam CO2 CO2 Vol.26No.6(2005) MEA Kerr-McGee CO2 Recovery Process Dow Chemical Gas/Spec FT-1 ABB/Lummus Crest Flour Daniel Gas/Spec FT-1 Econamine FG KEPCO/MHI

22 1.3-6 CO2 CO2 Vol.26No.6(2005) ABB Lummus Crest MEA 2 800t/dEconamine 30%MEA 1 320t/d KEPCO/MHI 2 MEA MEA J RITE 887

23 1.3-7 KEPCO/MHI CO2 160t t t t CO2 CO2 Vol.26No.6(2005) LNG SOx LNG NOx 34% KS-1 90% KS-1 KS % KS-1 888

24 % KS-1 KS-1 SOx EP 100 1,2 3,4 2/3 1/3 100 t-co2 10 t-co2 889

25 1.3.2(1) 100 t-co2 10 t-co / 10 / Nm 3 /h 578,000 57, H2O vol%(wet) 10.8 N2 vol%(wet) 72.0 O2 vol%(wet) 4.8 CO2 vol%(wet) 12.4 SO2 ppm 45 NOx ppm(o2=6%,wet) 45 g/nm 3 (O2=6%) / 3,

26 / 10 / Nm 3 /h 1,067, , H2O vol%(wet) 15.4 N2 vol%(wet) 73.0 O2 vol%(wet) 3.2 CO2 vol%(wet) 8.4 SO2 ppm 0 NOx ppm(o2=5%,dry) 19.0 g/nm 3 (O2=6%) 0 / 3, / 10 / Nm 3 /h 2,498, , H2O vol%(wet) 7.0 N2 vol%(wet) 76.2 O2 vol%(wet) 13.0 CO2 vol%(wet) 3.8 SO2 ppm 0 NOx ppm(o2=16%,dry) 9.5 g/nm 3 (O2=6%) 0 / 3,

27 90.25% (7,900 ) 263 (6,300 ) 90.25% CO2 LNG LNG 100 3,040 / / 100 3,802 / / 100 3,802 / / 1.1MPa t/h8, t204t/h 6, t20.4t/h 1,560 LNG 100 t 264t/h 7, t26.4t/h 1,820 LNG 100 t 276t/h 7, t25.2t/h 1,

28 13% 23t/h 7,000 /t 13t/h(5%) 100 /t 0.78kg/h(3kg/1000t-steam) 700 /kg 0.63t/h(Ca/S=2mol/mol) 8,000 /t 10,000 /t SOx 140 /Nm 3 85% LNG 100 LNG 10 LNG 100 LNG

29 t

30 t 895

31 t 896

32 % 3%

33 / 20 8 / 5 /

34

35 CO2 900

36 CCCAPL TRTCDQ

37 1.3.2.(1) BFG HSG C ,902m 3 4,000 m 3 1 / 97 BFG BFG 100 HSG BFG

38 BFG HSG BFG BFG = Blast Furnace Gas 35 HSG = Hot Stove Gas 18 CO2 (DRY BASE) SOx,NOx CO % BFG BFG BFG 903

39 90vol 99.9% BFG DEA N CO C BFG BFG CO2 (SectionA) C 904

40 CO2 CO2 Case 1 CO2 62,000Nm 3 /h1,000,000t/ Case 2 CO2 6,200Nm 3 /h100,000t/ BFG 1 2 Nm 3 /h CO 2 vol% (dry) CO vol% (dry) N 2 vol% (dry) H 2 vol% (dry) 3 3 O 2 vol% (dry) 0 0 H 2O vol% kpag Nm3/h 62,000 6,200 CO 2 vol% (dry) H 2O vol% MPaG 905

41 AC22,000V50Hz3 AC3,000V50Hz3 AC100V50Hz 0.147MPaG MPaG MPaG 0.49MPaG MPaG

42 CO2 CO2 CO2 907

43 t- CO2/ 8,300m 2 C Estimated Utility Consumption Chemical Requirement CO2 CO2 BFG / CO2 BFG 908

44 COG RITE

45 CO CO2 910

46 CO2 100 t-co2/ 10 t-co2/ CO2 vol% N2 vol% O2 vol% H2 vol% CO vol% CH4 vol% H2O vol% SOx ppm NOx ppm ( /t-co CO2 mg/nm bar abs Nm 3 /h CO2 t/h dry% bar abs CO2 t/hr CO2 % % hr/year CO , ,800 2,200 12,000 2,700 (1.1 MPa abs t/hr kwhr/hr 3, ( t/hr 12,000 1,200 t/hr t/hr 0 0 Nm 3 /h Nm 3 /year 0 0 DEA DEA t/year NaOH100% t/year 0 0 Ca(OH)2100% t/year 0 0 t/year t/year %) /t-co2 1,200 2,700 3%) /t-co /t-co2 3,080 5,130 /t-co /t-co /t-co /t-co2 0 0 /t-co NaOH,Ca(OH)2 /t-co2 0 0 /t-co /t-co2 0 0 /t-co /t-co2 6,050 10,050 (1.1 MPa abs) kj/kg-co2 4,700 4,700 kj/kg-co kj/kg-co2 4,970 4,

47 1) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Oct. 10, ) ) CO2 CO2 Vol.26No.6(2005) 4) ) 15 3 PEC-2002P-04 6) 6 2 7) NTS 8) WG 9) Anrnd B. Rao et al, AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR CARBON MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES, Report to U.S. Department of Energy, March ) Pulp and Paper Mills in Japan (34)

48 (IEA)World Energy Outlook ,500 / 418 /2010 8,880 / / ,000 / % ,860 kl27,714 kl 77.4%71.5% ,485 kl 50.0% ,486 / 15 4,072 / ,385 23,703 kl 4,072 / t- CO2/kL ,906 / 83% % 913

49

50 10ppm 17 PM NOxSOx 9 / % 9% 140 kl % 136% % 81% kl 76% / 4) % % 915

51 % % 40% ,385 (IGCC) 916

52 (FCV)PEFC (SOFC) 19 (FCV) PEFC FCV m 3 47 m 3 44% 5) 229 t-co2 300 t-co t-co2 600 t-co2 100 t-co2 300 t-co2 7% LPG 6) PSA (K2CO3 solution: Benfield process)mea, DEA, amdea, Ucarsol process0.1% CO CO2CO CH4 H2 97% PSA(Pressure Swing Adsorption)CO2,CO,CH4,H2O 99.9%0.8bar 10-20% 917

53 % PSA PSA 3bar SOx,NOx,H2S,NH3,O

54 CO2 30,218,000Nm 3 /d % Nm 3 919

55 Nm ppm 84.6 Nm Nm % PSA H kg-co2/nm 3 -H2 PSA kg-co2/nm 3 -H % 44.8% 347 2,962,400 t-co2 4) t-co2 18 t-co2 D 90% 34 t-co2 D D 1,792,000 Nm 3 /d H2 PSA CO2 100% %85%95% 25,000 Nm 3 /h 34 t-co2 38 t-co2 44.5% 90% 920

56 PSA PSA PSA PSA [kg/cm 2 G] [] [dry-nm 3 /h] H2 90,000 (75.3%) 15,000 (33.4%) CO 1,500 (1.3%) 1,500 (3.4%) CO2 25,000 (20.9%) 25,000 (56.4%) CH4 3,000 (2.5%) 2,800 (6.3%) 119,500 44,300 PSA PSA PSA PSA A B SDM PSA H2 PSA PSA PSA 921

57 PSA 3.3kg/cm 2 G 0.2kg/cm 2 G PSA 8,000Am 3 /h 160,000Am 3 /h 20 MEADEADGA ADIP, Sulfinol * Shell amdeabasf UcarsolDOW/UOP BenfieldUOP SelexolDOW/UOP RectisolLurgi/Linde *Sulfinol BASF amdea amdea H2 CO 34 t-co2 10 t-co2 34 t-co

58 t-co2/ 923

59 t-co2/ 924

60 17 ContingencyAllowance 10% 3%

61

62 CaCO3 CaO + CO % () ,186 t-co2 5,445 t-co

63 ) , , MJ 70% RITE t 21vol%(wet) 2,200Nm t-co2 700 t-co2 928

64 5,943 t-co2 5,445 t-co2 10% 10% (RITE ) 929

65 ,104 t ,508 t ,500 t % % () % ,586 MJ/t ,438 MJ/t ,451 MJ/t- 930

66 MJ/kWh MJ/kWh %

67 100 t-co MEA EOREnhanced Oil RecoveryMEA Fluor Econamine ABB Lummus Crest MEA Econamine MEA Econamine t/d 932

68 t-co2/ E E E E

69 [kg/cm 2 G] -0.1 kpag [] 90 [Nm 3 /h] 720,000 CO2 18 vol% O2 SOx NOx 9 vol% 130 ppm 250 ppm 0.02 g/nm 3 15 vol% 195 t-co2 100 t-co2 10 t-co2 SOxHSAS: Heat Stable Amine Salt Econamine SOx 10ppm SOx 130ppm 10ppm Econamine E 100 t-co2/ 10 t-co2/ 2 934

70 100 t-co2 10 t-co2 100 t-co2 10 t-co2 100 t-co t-co2/ 935

71 t-co2/ 936

72 E t 100 t ContingencyAllowance 10% 3% 937

73

74

75

76 LCALife Cycle Assessment

77 LCA CO2 kg-co2/t 1,000-1, {350-1,0001,300-1,900} 2 60% 40% CO2 [ t-co2/] ( 15 ) CO2 CO2 CO2 8,315 (58.4%) 5,926 (41.6%) 14,241 6,419 (55.1%) 5,239 (44.9%) 11,

78 ,457 t 15 26,430 t kg- CO2/t LCA ±50% 943

79 CO2 (1/3) 944

80 CO2 (2/3) 945

81 CO2 (3/3) 946

82 negative emissionipcc % 5070% RPF 947

83 H2O 22 % 11.7 % N2 63 % 71.2 % O2 2 % 4.5 % CO2 13 % 12.6 % SOx 5 ppm(dry) 42 ppm(dry) NOx ppm(dry) 20 mg/m 3 (dry) 50 ppm(dry) - RITE 16 ENAA 17% 15%SOx Fluor Econamine SOx 10ppm MEA Econamine 948

84 F CO2 41 t-co2/ I CO2 121 t-co2/ 100 t-co2/ 16 30,891 t ,000 t % 949

85 (4) Econamine Fluor MEA Econamine Econamine 1.3.2(4) SOx 5ppm(dry)Econamine 10ppm 950

86 100 t-co2/ [kg/cm 2 G] 0.1 kpag [] 60 [Nm 3 /h] 500,000 CO2 13 vol% O2 SOx NOx 2 vol% 5 ppm ppm 0.02 g/nm 3 22 vol% 2,400t/d 100 t-co2/ 10 t-co2/ t-co2 10 t-co2 951

87 100 t-co2 10 t-co2 100 t-co t-co2 952

88 t-co2 953

89 17 ContingencyAllowance 10% 3% 954

90

91

92 1.3.1(3) 7MPa

93

94

95 1970 (Canyon Reef Carriers) 2,500km EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) 5,000 t t/ km Cortez Sheep Mountain Bravo Canyon Reef Carriers Val Verde Bati Raman Weyburn / IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (2005) 100 t/ 49 MPa 7MPa RITE 55 / 12 / 100 t-co2/(500km 1.1 t ) -507ata 960

96 80 t-co2/ 10t/ 100 t-co2/ m JR 327 JR JR m JR 36 JR 961

97 36 JR JR C D A H F G A

98 B B PLADPipeline Arch Drill Method PLAD 963

99

100 1.3.3(1) 7MPa 10MPa MPa

101 Sleipner Society of Petroleum Engineers report SPE Sleipner Society of Petroleum Engineers report SPE t-co2/ 10m 15m 966

102 MP1.2m t-co2/ 100 t-co2/ 967

103

104

105 3 D D D km 5km D 5km 5km Bin Size 25 25m 3,000m 970

106 VSP X X SEMCEC m m 3 OBC

107 Drilling Chart 1,200m 3,300m 4,295m ERD 76 ERD S 972

108 Directional Drilling Plan Two Build-Up or "S" plofile Well Name: Tomakomai-Oki CO2 1200x3300 Engineer: Kick Off Point m of 1st BU m 1st Build Up Rate 5.00 deg/30m of 1st BU m 2nd Build Up Rate deg/30m of 1st BU m Total Vertical of 2nd BU 1, m of 1st Tangent m Total of 2nd BU 3, m of 1st Tangent 2, m Final of 2nd BU deg of 1st Tangent 3, m 2nd Tangent Length m of 2nd BU 3, m 1st Tangent Inclination deg of 2nd Tangent 1, m of 2nd Tangent 3, m Total DD 4, m 0 Departure, m Vertical Depth, m

109 Drilling Chart

110 SCADA/DCS 3 3D 3D 3D 4D Sleipner Weyburn 3,000m 2525m 975

111 Sleipner 4D 100 t-co2/ t-co2/ km t-co2/ Sleipner 4D

112 /4 30m 13m 1/3 30m 4/3 OBC OBC/ / 30m 30m 3D 30m 20m 20m OBCOcean Bottom CableOBC OBC OBC Heavy OBC 30m Light OBC 2 20m 3 OBC

113

114 100 t-co2/ km 5km D 5km 5km Bin Size 25 25m 3,000m 20m 3D OBC 1/10 3D ,550m2,0003,000 4,000 Drilling Chart 1,550m 1,200m 2,795m 60 2,000m 1,500m 3,410m 66 3,000m 1,500m 4,400m 79 4,000m 1,700m 5,415m 89 S 979

115 Directional Drilling Plan Two Build-Up or "S" plofile Well Name: Mukawoki 1550x1200 Engineer: Kick Off Point m of 1st BU 1, m 1st Build Up Rate 4.00 deg/30m of 1st BU m 2nd Build Up Rate deg/30m of 1st BU 1, m Total Vertical of 2nd BU 1, m of 1st Tangent 1, m Total of 2nd BU 1, m of 1st Tangent m Final of 2nd BU deg of 1st Tangent 1, m 2nd Tangent Length m of 2nd BU 2, m 1st Tangent Inclination deg of 2nd Tangent 1, m of 2nd Tangent 1, m Total DD 2, m 0 Departure, m Vertical Depth, m ,550m 980

116 Drilling Chart 1,550m

117 Directional Drilling Plan Two Build-Up or "S" plofile Well Name: Mukawoki 1500x2000 Engineer: Kick Off Point m of 1st BU m ber t 1st Build Up Rate 4.00 deg/30m of 1st BU m off. 2nd Build Up Rate deg/30m of 1st BU 1, m e for Total Vertical of 2nd BU 1, m of 1st Tangent 1, m d buil Total of 2nd BU 1, m of 1st Tangent 1, m Final of 2nd BU deg of 1st Tangent 2, m 2nd Tangent Length m of 2nd BU 2, m 1st Tangent Inclination deg of 2nd Tangent 1, m of 2nd Tangent 2, m Total DD 3, m 0 Departure, m Vertical Depth, m ,000m 982

118 Drilling Chart 2,000m

119 Directional Drilling Plan Two Build-Up or "S" plofile Well Name: Mukawoki 1500x3000 Engineer: Kick Off Point m of 1st BU m ber t 1st Build Up Rate 4.00 deg/30m of 1st BU m off. 2nd Build Up Rate deg/30m of 1st BU 1, m e for Total Vertical of 2nd BU 1, m of 1st Tangent 1, m d builtotal of 2nd BU 2, m of 1st Tangent 2, m Final of 2nd BU deg of 1st Tangent 3, m 2nd Tangent Length m of 2nd BU 3, m 1st Tangent Inclination deg of 2nd Tangent 1, m of 2nd Tangent 3, m Total DD 4, m 0 Departure, m Vertical Depth, m ,000m 984

120 Drilling Chart 3000m Drilling Chart 3,000m 985

121 Directional Drilling Plan Two Build-Up or "S" plofile Well Name: Mukawoki 1700x4000 Engineer: Kick Off Point m of 1st BU m ber t 1st Build Up Rate 4.00 deg/30m of 1st BU m off. 2nd Build Up Rate deg/30m of 1st BU 1, m e for Total Vertical of 2nd BU 1, m of 1st Tangent 1, m d builtotal of 2nd BU 3, m of 1st Tangent 3, m Final of 2nd BU deg of 1st Tangent 4, m 2nd Tangent Length m of 2nd BU 4, m 1st Tangent Inclination deg of 2nd Tangent 2, m of 2nd Tangent 4, m Total DD 5, m 0 Departure, m Vertical Depth, m ,000m 986

122 Drilling Chart 4,000m 987

123 3 D km 5km D 5km 6km Bin Size 25 25m 3,000m 5 6km m 3D 2.5km ,500m Drilling Chart ,200m Drilling Chart 5,500m 2,400m 6,912m 104 7,200m 2,200m 8,479m

124 S ,500m 989

125 Drilling Chart 5,500m 990

126 ,200m 991

127 Drilling Chart 7,200m 992

128 3 D D 1,000 OBC ,000 1, (a) OBC 993

129 1, (b) OBC OBC 994

130 D ,300m 1,600m 1,800m 2,350m 2,700m

131

132 D t t t t t/ 10 t/ 3D ,190 2,182 8,834 2,807 3D ,

133 ,550m 998

134 ,000m 999

135 ,000m 1000

136 ,000m 1001

137 D t-co t-co t-co t-co t-co2/ 10 t-co2/ 3D ,112 1,778 2,000m 8,032 2,435 3D , ,

138 1.3-56(a) 3D (b) 3D ,500 7,200 5,500m 33 7,200m

139 ,500m 1004

140 ,200m 1005

141 D 100 t-co2 6km 6km 3D 4 10 t-co2 2km 2km 3D t-co t-co t-co t-co t-co2/ 10 t-co2/ 3D ,500 1,500 5,855 3,091 5,500m 7,778 4,823 3D ,

142 (i) (ii) c ,200m 1,2001,300m 100 t-co t-co2500 t-co2 10 1,000 t-co2 2D 1.3-1(2) e CO2 1007

143 D BLS, base line seismic BLS 20km 13km 1762 M () 2D 3D m 3D 2D 2D () 2D BLS d 1008

144 PLT production logging tool MDT modular formation dynamic tester (1) D kmkm m 20 m 5 sec 2,000m 2 msec 300 CMP 5 m 60 5 CO2 BLSM01 M0210 M BLS e 1009

145 km m CO2 = 4MPa PdCO AAPG Memoir (2) BLS National-Oilwell 1320 UE 6,000m LWD (logging-while-drilling) PLT 1.4.3(2) 1010

146 Sleipner 10 13Cr 25Cr 1.4.3(2) 1.3-1(2) 116kscg(=11.4MPaG) 1011

147 , 2-3, 4 FRP FRP MDT CMR PLT X X CHDT MDT: Modular Formation Dynamic Tester (,, ), CMR: Combinable Magnetic Response Tool (;, ), PLT: Production Logging Tool (,, ), CHDT: Cased Hole Dynamics Tester (, ) VSP 1012

148

149 2,740 t-co2/ 100 t-co2/ 1.4.3(2) BLS 2D 2D t-co2 M t-co2 M02 1,000 t-co2 10 M03 BLS time lapse seismic M (2) Puma 510-E 2,000m FRP (Fiber Reinforced Pipe) ()

150 CHDT (cased hole dynamics tester) () m () () m 1cm in-situ ( ) 1015

151 c

152

153 1,000 D m 1500m 1400m 1300m 1200m 1100m 1000m 900m ) 1018

154 ,000 t-co2/10 ( ) 0 1 D BLS BLS 2D , 2 5 PLT 6 (1) 7 (2) 8 (3) 9 (4) 10 (5) 11 (6) 12 (7) 13 (8) 14 (9) 15 (10) 16 (11) t-co2 D M01 t-co2 D M02 3, 4 t-co2 D M02 PLT 100 t-co2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 500 t-co2 CO2-3, 4 CO2 CO2 CO2 1,000 t-co2 CO

155 ,000 2D 2D BLS /t-co t-co2/ 10 1,000 t-co (2) 1/31/5 1020

156 3 / () (t-co2) (t-co2) m50m 100m100m 50m50m 1,400m ,630m ?? 1 1,370m ,450m ,180m ,750m BLS (68km) D M01 (22km) M02 (32km) M03 (55km) ?? t 10 1,000 t 1320 UE 6,000m Puma 510-E 2,000m 180 /m M01 CO

157 1) 1980, 2) ) )1963 Cap Rock 28 1 p ) , p.1-7 6) p ) 1977 Porosity Anomaly 42, 2 p ) ) Berg, R.R., 1975, Capillary pressures in stratigraphic traps, AAPG Bull., vol.59, p ) Sneider R.M., Sneider, J.S., Bolger, G.W., and Neasham, J.W., 1997Comparison of Seal Capacity Determinations: Conventional Cores vs. Cuttings, AAPG Memoir 67, p ) Krushin, J.T., 1997, Seal Capacity of Nonsmectite Shale, AAPG Memoir 67, p ) Sales, J.K., 1997, Seal Strength vs. Trap Closure A Fundamental Control on the Distribution of Oil and Gas, AAPG Memoir 67, p ) Kaldi, J.G. and Atkinson, C.D., 1997, Evaluating from the Talang Akar Formation, Offshore Northwest Java, Indonesia, AAPG Memoir 67, p ) Hansen, H., Eiken, O., and Aasum, T.O., 2005, Tracing the Path of Carbon Dioxide From a Gas/Condensate Reservoir, Through an Amine Plant and Back Into a Subsurface AquiferCase Study: The Sleipner Area, Norwegian North Sea, SPE ) Hoefs, J., 1980, Stable Isotope Geochemistry, Springer-Verlag. 1022

158 SOx 100 t-co2/ 3,000 t-co2/ 1,000t-CO2/ t-co2/ 100 kw 18,000 t-co2/ 1023

159 NOx SOx NOx SOx NOx SOx SOx ABB Lummus Crest SO2 50ppm Fluor Daniel Econamine FG 10ppm SOx 12ppm LNG EP LNG 100 t-co2/ 6 LNG EP 1024

160 SGH GGH SGH MPa 67t/h GGH GGHSGH SGH 1) 100 kw 18,000 t-co2/ 1025

161 LNG 1026

162 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (d) 10 BFG BFG HSG 100 t-co2/ 80m 100m

163 BFG () BFG BFG 20 BFG BFG BFG 1.3.2(2) 1 /

164 RITE CO (a) (b) 1) Nobuo Imai, Kazuo Ishida, Economic Study on CO2 Capture and Sequestration from PCF Flue Gas, GHGT7, ) Anrnd B. Rao et al, AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR CARBON MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES, Report to U.S. Department of Energy, March

165 1 2,215kJ/kg-CO2 amdea bar LNG 7MPa 1030

166 LNG Treated Natural Gas High Pressure Operation Deletion of Compressor Stage Concentrated CO 2 Absorber Natural Gas CO 2 : 5-15% or more Regenerator GT Energy Saving CO 2 to Pipeline Deletion of Compressor Train MPaG 0.35MPaG (7MPa) 1031

167 PSA PSA PSA PSA PSA PSA PSA 1.3.2(3) 1.3.2(3) 1.3.2(3) % 1032

168 PSA MPa 7MPa 1MPa PSA 1033

169 t- CO (1) RDF 1MPaG 0.35MPaG 1034

170 b 7MPa 100 t-co2 150m 100m 165t/h 7m 1035

171 2 SOx MEA 2,400t2.4kg/t-CO (a) (b) MEA t ,250 2,40019,250 = 4, (4) (c) (d) 8 99,270 t 16 71,680 t 70%

172 () 1037

173 49MPa 8 MPa 7MPa 4MPa 1038

174 NTT / 1039

175 LPG EOR Offshore Unloading of Semi-pressurized CO2 to an Oilfield A. Aspelund GHGT bar bar bar bar1020 1,

176 3 3 1 RITEIPCC 1041

177 3 OBC Ocean Bottom Cable 1 1 OBC Instrumented Seismic Survey Permanent Receiver Array In Salah OBC / ERD ERD ERD ERD 1042

178 1.4-2 ERD 1,600m Wytch Farm ERD ERD ERD ERD CO2 EOR / CO2 CO2 1043

179 CO CO2 Injection (kg/yr) Comparison of Injectivity model 4 & model 2 1.1e+9 1.0e e+8 8.0e+8 7.0e+8 6.0e e+8 4.0e+8 3.0e+8 2.0e+8 1.0e+8 0.0e Time (yr) Gas Mass Rate(CO2) SC model4_sec_vm_top_vg_10b_den-vis_2.irf Gas Mass Rate(CO2) SC model2_sec_vm_top_vg_10b_den-vis.irf NEDO 1044

180 Comparison of Injectivity model 4 & model e+10 Cumulative CO2 Injection (kg) 2.00e e e e e Time (yr) Cumulative Gas Mass(CO2) SC model4_sec_vm_top_vg_10b_den-vis_2.irf Cumulative Gas Mass(CO2) SC model2_sec_vm_top_vg_10b_den-vis.irf CO2 NEDO / CO2 CO2 3D 1045

181 3D CO2 1 Sleipner Izaute mgalduncan, Izaute Duncan

182 0.08mgal In Salah CO2 Sniffer Survey CO2 AEAcoustic Emission Intelligent Well Izaute ERD Intelligent Well CO

183 1.4-6 Izaute Permanent Seismic Sensor Knott, Intelligent Well Kragas,

184 1.4-1 OBC ERD Synthetic Base Mud ERD CO2 CO2 CO2 1049

185 CO2 1050

186 1.3.4(2) 2D Pdk Pd k (2) 1051

187 100m Sleipner Utsira Utsira 3D 3D

188 1,200m 100 t-co (1) 1 2D 70m 1.3.4(2) Sleipner 25Cr 13Cr CO2-EOR 1.3.4(2) Sleipner 1053

189 ph CO2 2D 3D 2D 1.3.4(2) FRP 160m 100 t-co2 500m m 1054

190 in-situ

191 1.4-2 CO2 Pd 2D 13Cr 25Cr CO2-EOR 2D CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO CO2 Basin Model 1056

192 1.4.2(1) 49MPa 8 MPa α 7MPa 4MPa

193 1) 2) 3) % LNG 71.92% % 52.6% 1058

194

195 /

196 MAX MIN 2 BFG / 2 D 1.3.2( PSA PSA PSA PSA Benfield PSA PSA [kg/cm 2 G] [] [dry-vol%] H CO CO CH PSA 1.3.2(3) Benfield 1061

197 PSA PSA D (3) 44% PSA (1) D 34 t-co2/ PSA (2) (3) (4) m 2 2 7m10m+(25m20m 1037 t-co2/ PSA *6 550m 2 1 * % *1, *2 *3 *4 *5 *2 1062

198 PSA D CO (3) D (WG) // 17 / / // 44% 34%/ 22% / 17 CO2 10% 3% 1063

199

200

201

202 100 t-co

203

204 t-co2/ 8,500 / 78km 10MPa / CO2 100 t-co2/7mpa CO2 t-co2/ / / /... CO2 100 t-co2/7mpa 1069

205 CO2 t-co2/ /. / / 11.5MPa 100 t-co2/20 t-co2/ 2 1,000km500km 2 4 (a) 1 RITE 500km 3 1,000km

206 (b) 100 t-co2/500km m 3 /d 3 3, ,000/8760 X 10,056t 11,000t t-co2/1,000km 13,400 15,000t 20 t-co2/500km 2,200t 20 t-co2/1000km 3,000t 1 507ata 1.16 (c) RITE t500km 22,000t 100 t1,000kmn 30,000t 20 t 500km 4,400t 20 t 1,000km 6,000t 16 GHGT RITE 3) 7 CO2 LNG VLCC VLCC 7 85 = (106) GHGT RITE 3) 1071

207 8 2 RITE %GHGT-7 C 770 GJ 32,000 kl t-co2 500km 11,000t 14,000m 3 (16,240t) t-co2 500km 100 t-co2 1,000km 100 t-co2 1,000km 20 t-co2 500km 20 t-co2 500km 20 t-co2 1,000km 20 t-co2 1,000km 22,000t ,000t ,000t ,200t ,400t ,000t ,000t

208 GHGT C C 41.7MJ/L(9,962kcal/L) kg-C/MJ kg-CO2/MJ kg-CO2/L 2.98t-CO2/kL VLCC g/t-mile 2.0g/t-mile 98% C L/t-km GHGT-7 123kWh/t-CO2 24MJ/t-CO2 22.1t/t-CO2 CO kg-CO2/kWh kg-CO2/MJ 2.98t-CO2/kL 1073

209 t-co2/ 20 t-co2/ 500km 1,000km 500km 1,000km hr/ 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 2,330 2, CO2 3,630 4, ,400 5,100 2,200 2,500 10,800 12,919 3,828 4,425 kwh/ t/ MJ/ L/ 575 1, / 1,080 1, / 3/ / / 1,230 1, / / / / / 1,610 1, CO2 t-co2/ 48,200 48,200 9,640 9,640 CO2 t-co2/ 14,600 21,900 3,210 4,380 t-co2/ t-co2/ 3,210 6, ,288 t-co2/ 66,010 76,530 13,493 15,308 CO2 1074

210 t-co2/ 20 t-co2/ 500km 1,000km 500km 1,000km hr/ 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 2,330 2, CO ,100 7,000 3,000 3,400 4,400 5,100 2,200 2,500 12,830 14,969 6,102 6,835 kwh/ t/ MJ/ l/ 575 1, / / 1,283 1, / / / 1,230 1, / / / / / 1,610 1, CO2 t-co2/ 48,200 48,200 9,640 9,640 CO2 t-co2/ t-co2/ 14,600 21,900 3,210 4,380 t-co2/ 3,210 6, ,288 t-co2/ 66,010 76,530 13,493 15,

211 1) CO ) Marine Transportation of CO2, Masahiko Ozaki, John Davidson, Junichi Minamiura, GHGT ) CO RITE 1076

212 t-co2/ Day Rate D 3D OBC-3D 50 20km 10 10km 55km 5 5km 1,500 2, / 3.4/ (2.8/) 7/ 1,0003,000 4D 2 CO2 5km5km D 50km20km2km 3D OBC 10km10km 4D 5km5km 1077

213 2D (SP-SP) 580km53km(20km/2km+1) 3,000m 25m50mCMP 12.5m D 3D OBC (5km5km) 2D 30m 40m 3D 2D3D OBC 15 2D km2km 580km 120km/ D 2,500 2, QC ,

214 D D 3D 18 Primary line11 (88580) Infill line2 10km10km885km 80km/ D 2,000 10, , QC , , km5km IPCC 3D OBC 60 ()50 ( 5km5km56 6 /+2 ) 10 ( 20) DOBC 4,000 35, , QC 1, , , ,

215 / 2.5 ERDExtended Reach Drilling B CO2 500m ERD 100 t-co2/ 20 t-co2/ 2 10 t-co2// 50 t-co2// 100 t-co2/ t-co2// 50 t-co2//20 t-co2/10 t-co2// 50 t-co2// / CO2 1,000m 2,000m 3,000m 4,000m 5,000m ERD ERD

216 CO m 20km 70km 70km 30m % 30m90m150m 3 300m 300m 20km 70km 30m Well Head 90m 150m ,000m 2,000m 10 t-co2/ / ,000m 2,000m 50 t-co2// ,000m, 4,000m, 5,000m 10 t-co2// ,000m, 1081

217 4,000m, 5,000m 50 t-co2// / 30m 50 t-co2// 10 t-co2// 100 t-co2/ 20 t-co2/ 1/5 1/ / 20 t-co2/ 100 t-co2/ 10 t-co2// t-co2// ERD 1,000m 2,000m (m) 2,500 (m) 3,013 1,175 (/m) 39 (m) 5,000 (m) 5,708 2,626 (/m)

218 1,000m 2,000m 3,000m 4,000m 5,000m Platform (m) 1,700 1,700 (m) 2,242 2,242 1,121 1,009 (/m) (m) 2,000 2,000 (m) 3,233 3,233 2,231 2,101 (/m) (m) 2,000 2,000 (m) 4,250 4,250 3,145 2,975 (/m) (m) 2,000 2,000 (m) 5,250 5,250 () 4,095 3,675 (/m) (m) 2,000 2,000 (m) 6,250 6,250 () 6,688 4,375 (/m)

219 ,000m, 2,000m 10 t-co2// / 100 t-co2/ 20 t-co2/ 1,000m ,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m 70km/ 2,000m 20km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m

220 ,000m, 2,000m 50 t-co2// / 100 t-co2/ 20 t-co2/ 1,000m ,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m 70km/ 2,000m 20km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m m 70km/ 1,000m km/ 2,000m

221 1.5-23, 3,000m, 4,000m, 5,000m 10 t-co2//: / 100 t-co2/ (10 ) 30m 90m 150m 300m 30m 90m 150m 20 t-co2/ (2 ) 20km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m 70km/ 4,000m 70km/ 5,000m 20km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m

222 1.5-24, 3,000m, 4,000m, 5,000m 50 t-co2//: / 100 t-co2/(2 ) 20 t-co2/(1 ) 30m 90m 150m 300m 30m 90m 150m 20km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m 70km/ 4,000m 70km/ 5,000m 20km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m km/ 5,000m km/ 3,000m km/ 4,000m

223 1,000 t-co2 5,000 t-co2 25km 2 5km5km 5km 25km 2 17 (a) (b) 1088

224 (b) 10km10km 2D km 2 5km5km 10km5 2 2km 3 5km km 1089

225 version D 2DS-210km5 2 2km 2DS-1 2DS-2 1km MDT 2D 5 version

226 10km 10km 2DS-1 2DS km5km 23 version

227 ,000 2,000m DS-1 100km km DS , MDT DS-2 100km km DS MDT , MDT ,664 4, m100m 50m50m 1092

228 2,000 ERD 2,000m Puma 510-E 18 m 1,000m1,500m2,000m 1,000m1.8 1,500m2.7 2,000m t-co2 2,400m 1,300m13 13Cr 25Cr 2,000 2 LWD FRP 1093

229 1,000m500 2,000m1,000 2D km 5km5km 500m 5km11 5km km4km 500m 4km9 4km km3km 500m 3km7 3km ,000m 1,500m 2,000m m100m ,300m 2,400m 2LWD 50m50m D : 5km5km 4km4km 3km3km 500m

230 (3) / 1095

231

232 1097

233 1098

234 I

235 1100

236 CO2 34 t-co2/ / / 2 4, CO t-co2/ 1101

237

238 (1)

30-48 1973-48 1973 77.4 15 2003 50.0-2 - 2003 80 - - - 16 2004 British Petroleum 41 67 192-3 - IEA / World Energy Outlook 2000 2004 OECD/NEAIAEA - 4 - 5 6 4 80km 60km 100km 300km 800km 25km 3-1,300mm

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