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1 Japanese Native Speakers Perceptions of Politeness when Refusing an Invitation: An Analysis of the Relationship between Length and Appropriateness ITO Emiko This study attempts to investigate the correlation of length with appropriateness in terms of refusals to an invitation. The data was collected from 116 Japanese native speakers who participated in a survey. The survey consisted of two variables: 1) length (long/short) and 2) appropriateness (appropriate/inappropriate). The analysis of the survey results verified the general hypothesis that, Longer expressions are politer than shorter expressions with regard to refusals under the condition that the expression is appropriate. The results of the present study show an important implication for learners of the Japanese language. The Japanese language is considered HC communication (High Context). This means that the context of communication is important in socio-cultural discourses regarding Japanese language use. If these socio-cultural expressions of communication are not followed, communication is considered incomplete (Hall 1976). This suggests that learners also need to be able to estimate the appropriate level of politeness in a close relationship and to use acceptable expressions when speaking with Japanese native speakers. 145

2 18 (2006 ) (second language) 1) (pragmatic competence) (interlanguage pragmatics) (Blum- Kulka, House, & Kasper 1989) (The perception and comprehension of illocutionary force and politeness) (Kasper & Rose 1999: 81) (politeness) 2) ( ) (Beebe, Takahashi, & Uliss-Weltz 1990; 1992; 1993; 1994 ) 146

3 Brown & Levinson (1987) (face) (positive face) 3) (negative face) FTA (Face Threatening Act) FTA (power) (distance) (ranking) (Ide 1989; Matsumoto 1989 ) ( 1997) Beebe, Takahashi, & Uliss-Weltz (1990) (1994) (1992) (1993) 147

4 18 (2006 ) (2002) ) (semantic formulas) (Blum-Kulka, & Olshtain 1984; Beebe, Takahashi, & Uliss-Weltz 1990; 1993) ( 1993: 44){ } {}{}{}{}{} ( 1994; 2002; 2004) FTA 148

5 ( ) ( 1993 ) Thomas (1983) (pragmatic failure) (pragmalinguistic failure) (sociopragmatic failure) (socialization) (1997) Yamashita (1996) 149

6 18 (2006 ) (1992) (Blum-Kulka & Olshtain 1984: ) (Cowan, Drinkard & MacGavin 1984; Instone, Major & Bunker 1983 ) (Takai, Cargile & Wiemann 2000) % (Dörnyei 2003: 37) 150

7 6 ( ) (1) (6) (1) 1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 () () (2) 1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 () () (3) 1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 () () 151

8 18 (2006 ) (4) 1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 () () (5) 1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 () () (6) 1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 () () (1) (2) (3) (4) 4 152

9 (1) (2) {} {} {} {}{} 5 (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (2) (1) (2) {} {} {} {} {} 5 (3) (4) {} { } 2 (3) (4) (3) (4) (1984) 2 (5) (6) 153

10 18 (2006 ) 2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (1) (4) 5) 3. 3 (Analysis of Variance) 1 (A B) (interaction effect) 6) (F (1, 115) = , p < 0.001) t (t-test) 7) 4 t 0.1% (t (115) = 19.29, p < 0.001) (t (115) = 5.07, p < 0.001) (t (115) = 5.64, p < 0.001) (t (115) = 10.06, p < 0.001) 5% α () 154

11 4 p < (A B) 3 (A) () () (B) 4.62 (1.40) 3.69 (1.13) 1.76 (1.01) 3.21 (1.11) A (1, 115) B (1, 115) 0.000*** A B (1, 115) 0.000*** ***: 0.1% **: 1% *: 5% : 10% 4 t t () (1) (2) *** (3) (4) *** (1) (4) *** (2) (3) *** ***: 0.1% **: 1% *: 5% : 10% 155

12 18 (2006 ) 3 (1) 4.62 (2) 1.76 (3) 3.21 (4) 3.69 (1) > (4) > (3) > (2) (1) > (4) > (3) > (2) (1) > (4) > (3) > (2) t 4 0.1%

13 (3) (4) > > > (Hall 1976) (sociopragmatic failure) 8) (Kasper & Rose 2001) (grammatical errors) (pragmatic errors) (Bardovi-Harlig & Dörnyei 1998) 157

14 18 (2006 ) 1) 2) Brown & Levinson (1987) 3) positive negative ( 1999 ) Brown & Levinson (1987) face 4) 5) SPSS11.0 ( ) t 6) 2 2 7) 2 8) Thomas (1983) (pragmatic failure) (pragmalinguistic failure) (sociopragmatic failure) 2 158

15 (1992) politeness strategy ( 1) (1993) politeness strategy ( 2) (1997) (1993) (2002) (2004) ( ) (1992) (1) (1997) () ( ) (1994) H (1984) Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations?: Pragmatic versus grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, Beebe, L. M., Takahashi, T., & Uliss-Weltz, R. (1990). Pragmatic transfer in ESL refusals. In R. C. Scarcella, E. S. Andersen, & S. D. Krashen (Eds.), Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language. (Pp ). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Blum-Kulka, S., House, J. & Kasper, G. (1989). Investigating cross-cultural pragmatics: An introductory overview. In Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (Eds.), Cross-cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. (Pp. 1 34). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 159

16 18 (2006 ) Blum-Kulka, S., & Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied Linguistics, 5, Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cowan, G., Drinkard, J., & MacGavin, L. (1984). The effects of target, age, and gender on use of power strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in Second Language Research: Construction, Administration, and Processing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Press. Ide, S. (1989). Formal forms and discernment: Two neglected aspects of universals of linguistics politeness. Multilingua, 8, Instone, D. Major, B., & Bunker, B. B. (1983). Gender, self confidence, and social influence strategies: An organizational simulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (1999). Pragmatics and SLA. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 19, (2001). Pragmatics in language teaching. In K. R. Rose, & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in Language Teaching. (Pp. 1 9). New York: Cambridge University Press. Matsumoto, Y. (1989). Politeness and conversational universals-observations from Japanese. Multilingua, 8, Takai, J., Cargile, A., & Wiemann, J. (2000). Situational and relational contexts of direct communication strategies: A cross-cultural comparison. Convention of the National Communication Association, Seattle, Thomas, J. (1983). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4, Yamashita, S. O. (1996). Six Measures of JSL Pragmatics. Honolulu: Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 160

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